List of Predatory Publishers 2014

By Jeffrey Beall

Released January 2, 2014

The gold (author pays) open-access model has given rise to a great many new online publishers. Many of these publishers are corrupt and exist only to make money off the author processing charges that are billed to authors upon acceptance of their scientific manuscripts.

There are two lists below. The first includes questionable, scholarly open-access publishers. Each of these publishers has a portfolio that ranges from just a few to hundreds of individual journal titles.

The second list includes individual journals that do not publish under the platform of any publisher — they are essentially standalone, questionable journals.

In both cases, we recommend that researchers, scientists, and academics avoid doing business with these publishers and journals. Scholars should avoid sending article submissions to them, serving on their editorial boards, reviewing papers for them, or advertising in them. Also, tenure and promotion committees should give extra scrutiny to articles published in these journals, for many of them include instances of research misconduct.

There are still many high-quality journals available for scholars to publish in, including many that do not charge author processing fees. An additional option is author self-archiving of article postprints in discipline-specific and institutional repositories.

The author is grateful to the many colleagues who have shared information about potential predatory publishers. Last year’s list included 225 publishers, and this year’s has over 477, evidence of the continued rapid growth in the number of predatory journals and publishers. The table below details the growth of questionable publishers since 2011.


Number of predatory publishers









This list will be updated throughout the year at the blog Scholarly Open Access Please refer to the blog rather than the lists below because the lists below will not be updated.

The criteria for inclusion in the lists can be found here. The author’s email address is:

List 1: Questionable Publishers

  1. Abhinav
  2. A M Publishers
  3. Academe Research Journals
  4. Academia Publishing
  5. Academia Scholarly Journals (ASJ)
  6. Academic and Business Research Institute
  7. Academic and Scientific Publishing
  8. Academic Journals
  9. Academic Journals and Research ACJAR
  10. Academic Journals, Inc.
  11. Academic Journals Online (AJO)
  12. Academic Publications, Ltd.
  13. Academic Research Journals
  14. Academic Research Publishing Agency
  15. Academic Scholars Publishing House
  16. Academic Sciences
  17. Academic Star Publishing Company
  18. Academic World Education & Research Center
  19. AcademicDirect
  20. Academy & Industry Research Collaboration Center (AIRCC)
  21. Academy Journals
  22. Academy of IRMBR International Research in Management and Business Realities
  23. Academy of Knowledge Process
  24. Academy of Science and Engineering (ASE)
  25. Academy of Science and Social Science (ASSS)
  26. Academy Publish
  27. Access International Journals
  28. Ada Lovelace Publications
  29. Advance Research Publications
  30. Advanced Research Journals
  31. Advanced Science and Engineering Technology Institute (ASET)
  32. Advancement and Development in Technology International (Aditi)
  33. AENSI
  34. African Research Review (AFRREV)
  35. AgiAl Publishing House
  36. Aizeon Publishers
  37. Akademik Plus Publication
  38. AkiNik Publications
  39. American Academic & Scholarly Research Center (AASRC)
  40. American Association for Science and Technology (AASCIT)
  41. American Scientific Research Journals
  42. American Society for Science and Engineering
  43. American V-King Scientific Publishing
  44. Annex Publishers
  45. ANSINetwork
  46. Antarctic Journals
  47. Aperito Publications
  48. Apex Journal
  49. Apex Journals
  50. Applied Science Innovations
  51. Archers & Elevators Publishing House
  52. ARPN Journals
  53. Ashdin Publishing
  54. Asian Academic Research Associates
  55. Asian Economic and Social Society (AESS)
  56. Asian Online Journals
  57. Asian Research Consortium
  58. Association of Computer Electronics and Electrical Engineers(ACEEE)
  59. AstonJournals
  60. Atlas Publishing, LP
  61. Austin Publishing Group
  62. Australian International Academic Centre Pty. Ltd.
  63. Avens Publishing Group
  64. Avestia Publishing
  65. Avicena Publisher
  66. Basic Research Journals
  67. Bell Press
  68. Bentham Open
  69. Better Advances Press
  70. Biohelikon
  71. BioInfo Publications
  72. BioIT international Journals 
  73. Biological and Chemical Publishing
  74. BioMedSciDirect Publications
  75. Bioscience Research & Educational Institute [Link dead as of 2012-11-14]
  76. Blue Ocean Research Journals
  77. BluePen Journals
  78. Bonfring
  79. Bowen Publishing
  80. British Association of Academic Research (BAAR)
  81. British Journal
  82. Business Journalz (BJ)
  83. Business Perspectives
  84. Canadian Center of Science and Education
  85. Canadian Research & Development Center of Sciences and Cultures  see CSCanada
  86. Canadian Science and Technology Press Inc.
  87. Cardiology Academic Press
  88. Center for the Development and Dissemination of Knowledge
  89. Center for Enhancing Knowledge (CEK), UK
  90. The Center for Innovations in Business & Management Practice
  91. Central Research Insight
  92. Centre For Info Bio Technology (CIBTech)
  93. Centre for Promoting Ideas
  94. Centre of Excellence for Scientific & Research Journalism (COES&RJ)
  95. Centre of Promoting Research Excellence (CPRE)
  96. Cloud Journals
  97. The Clute Institute
  98. Columbia International Publishing
  99. Comprehensive Research Journals
  100. Computer Science Journals
  101. CONFAB Journals
  102. Congress Press
  103. Contemporary Research Center (CRC), Australia
  104. Cosmic Journals
  105. CREST Journals
  106. Crown Journals
  107. CSCanada
  108. Cyber Journals
  109. Design for Scientific Renaissance
  110. DISA Publication Group (DP Group)
  111. Discovery Publishing Group 
  112. David Publishing
  113. Deccan Pharma Journals
  114. DeNovo Scientific Publishing
  115. Discourse Journals
  116. DRUNPP Sarajevo (Society for Development of Teaching and Business Processes in New Net Environment in B&H)
  117. E-International Journals of Academic & Scientific Research (EIJASR)
  118. E-International Scientific Research Journal Consortium (E-ISRJC)
  119. e-journals
  120. e3Journals
  121. Ebioscholar
  122. eCanadian Journals
  123. Econjournals
  124. Edorium Journals
  125. EDUGAIT Press
  126. EISRJC Journals (E-International Scientific Research Journal Consortium
  127. eLearning Institute
  129. Elewa Bio Sciences
  130. Elite Research Journals
  131. eJournals of Academic Research & Reviews
  132. Electronic Center for International Scientific Information
  133. Elmer Press
  134. Elyns Publishing Group
  135. Engineering and Technology Publishing
  136. Engineering Journals (Engg Journals Publications)
  137. Enliven Archive
  138. Erudite Journals Limited
  139. ESRSA Publication – Engineering and Science Research Support Academy
  140. ETA Maths Journals
  141. Euro Asia Research and Development Association
  142. EuroJournals
  143. European-American Journals
  144. ExcelingTech Publishing Company, Ltd.
  145. Far East Research Centre
  146. Ficus Publishers
  147. Genexcellence Publication (G Publications)
  148. Global Advanced Research Journals
  149. The Global Journals
  150. Global Journals, Inc. (US)
  151. Global Openaccess
  152. Global Research Journals
  153. Global Researchers Journals
  154. Global Research Online
  155. Global Research Publishing (GRP)
  156. Global Scientific, Inc.
  157. Global Technocrats & Intellectual’s Association (GTIA)
  159. GlobalSkope Publishing Society
  160. Green Earth Research Network
  161. Green Global Foundation (GGF)
  162. Greener Journals
  163. Growing Science Publishing Company
  164. Herald International Research Journals
  165. Herbert Open Access Journals
  166. Hikari Ltd.
  167. Horizon Research Publishing
  168. Human and Sciences Publications (HumanPub)
  169. Human Resource Management Academic Research Society (HRMARS)
  170. IBIMA Publishing
  171. IJRCM
  172. iMedPub = Internet Medical Publishing
  173. Impact Journals
  174. Indian Society for Education and Environment (ISEE)
  175. IndianResearchJournals.Com
  176. Indus Foundation for Education, Research & Social Welfare
  177. Infinity Press
  178. Infonomics Society
  179. Inforesights Publishing
  180. Ingenious Enterprises International (INGENIN)
  181. Innovare Academic Sciences
  182. Innovative Space of Scientific Research (ISSR Journals)
  183. INREWI
  184. Insight Knowledge
  185. Institute for Research and Development India (IRD)
  186. Institute of Advanced Scientific Research
  187. Institute of Doctors Engineers and Scientists (IDES)
  188. Institute of Electronic & Information Technology
  189. Institute of Language and Communication Studies
  190. Institute of Research and Journals (IRAJ)
  191. Institute of Research Engineers and Doctors (IRED)
  192. Institute of Strategic and International Studies
  193. InTech Open Access Publisher - Mirror site
  194. Integrated Publishing Association
  195. Integrated Science Publications
  196. Intellect Journals
  197. Intellectual Archive
  198. Intercontinental Electronic Journals
  199. Interdisciplinary Publications
  200. Intermedcentral
  202. International Academic Journals
  203. International Academy of Business & Economics
  204. International Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology(International ASET)
  205. International Academy of Science , Engineering and Technology(IASET)
  206. The International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA)
  207. International Advances for Research
  208. International Association for Engineering & Technology
  209. International Association for Engineering and Management Education (IAEME)
  210. International Association of Computer Science and Information Technology (IACSIT Press)
  211. International Association of Journals & Conferences (IAJC)
  212. International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research(IASIR)
  213. International Association of Technology Education & Industry
  214. International Center for Business Research
  215. International Centre of Culture Inventory
  216. International Conference on Computer Science and Engineering
  217. International Digital Organization for Scientific Information (IDOSI)
  218. International Educative Research Foundation And Publisher
  219. International Foundation for Modern Education and Scientific Research (INFOMESR)
  220. International Foundation for Research and Development
  221. International House for Academic Scientific Research [Link dead as of 2013-01-02]
  222. International Indexed Refereed Research Journal
  223. International Institute for Science, Technology and Education(IISTE)
  224. International Institute of Informatics and Systemics
  225. International Institute of Scientific & Industrial Research
  226. International Invention Journals
  227. International Journal Publishers Group
  228. The International Journal Research Publications
  229. International Journals of Engineering & Sciences
  230. International Journals of Multidisciplinary Research Academy
  231. International Journals of Scientific Knowledge (IJSK)
  232. International Journals of Scientific Research (IJSR)
  233. International Network for Applied Sciences and Technology
  234. International Network for Scientific & Industrial Information
  235. International Network for Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
  236. International Online Knowledge Services Provider (IOKSP)
  237. International Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
  238. International Recognition Multidisciplinary Research Journals, Monthly Publish
  239. International Recognition Research Journals
  240. International Research E-Journals
  241. International Research Journals (Lagos, Nigeria)
  242. International Research Journals (Accra, Ghana)
  243. International Research Organization of Computer Science (IROCS)
  244. International Scholars Journals
  245. International Science Congress Association
  246. International Scientific Academic Corporation
  247. International Scientific Engineering and Research Publications
  248. International Scientific Publications
  249. International Society for Zoological Research (ISZR)
  250. International Society of Universal Research in Sciences (EyeSource)
  251. Internet Medical Publishing
  252. Internet Scientific Publications
  253. Interscience Journals
  254. Interscience Open Access Journals
  255. iProbe Group
  256. (IROSSS) International Research Organization of Sciences and Social Sciences
  257. ISISnet
  258. ISPACS (International Scientific Publications and Consulting Services)
  259. IRED International Journals
  260. Ivy Union Publishing
  261. JET Publishing
  262. Journal Issues
  263. Journal of Comprehensive Research
  264. JournalsBank
  265. JScholar Journals
  266. JSciMed Central
  267. Jyoti Academic Press
  268. Kaleidoscope Journals
  269. KEJA Publications
  270. Key Research Journals (KRJ)
  271. Kindi Publication
  272. Knowledgebase Publishers
  273. KnowledgesPublisher
  274. Knowledgia Scientific (formerly Knowledgia Review)
  275. KY Publications
  276. Leena & Luna International
  277. Lifescience Global
  278. Literati Scientific and Publishers  (Literati Publishers)
  279. Longbridge Publishing Company
  280. Lorem Journals
  281. Macrothink Institute
  282. Meghana Pubilcations 
  283. Management Education & Research Consortium Global (MERC Global)
  284. Management Journals
  285. Marsland Press
  286. Mary and Sam Research Academia
  287. Maryland Institute of Research
  288. Maxwell Scientific Organization
  289. MASAUM Network
  290. Medical Science Journals [Link dead as of 2012-11-14]
  291. Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research (MCSER)
  292. Medwell Journals
  293. Mehta Press
  294. Merit Research Journals
  295. MNK Publication
  296. Modern Scientific Press
  297. Moksha Publishing House
  298. Muhammadon Centre for Research and Development (MCRD)
  299. Mustang Journals
  300. Narain Publishers Pvt. Ltd (NPPL)
  301. National Social Science Association (NSSA)
  302. Natural Sciences Publishing Corporation
  303. Nauk Publication
  304. Net Journals
  305. New Ground Research Journals
  306. New World Sciences Academy
  307. Nexus Academic Publishers (NAP)
  308. NobleResearch Publisher
  309. Noto-are
  310. Novus Scientia Journals
  311. North Atlantic University Union
  312. Nuclei Online
  313. OA Publishing London
  314. Oceanic Journals
  315. OMICS Publishing Group
  316. OneCentral Press
  317. Online Journals Management System (OJMS)
  318. Online Research Journals
  319. Open Access Science Research Publisher (OASRP)
  320. OpenAccessPub
  321. Open Research and Science Library (ORSlib)
  322. Open Research Network
  323. Open Research Society
  324. Open Science
  325. ORIC Publications 
  326. Ozean Publications
  327. Pacesetter Online Publishers
  328. Pak Publishing Group
  329. PBS Journals
  330. Peak Journals
  331. Pelagia Research Library
  332. Pharma Intelligence
  333. Pharma Professional Services
  334. Pharmaceutical Research Foundation
  335. Pharmacognosy Network Worldwide
  336. PharmaInfo
  337. PharmaInterScience Publishers
  338. Photon Foundation
  339. Pinnacle Journal Publication
  340. Praise Worthy Prize
  341. Prime Journals
  342. Priyanka Research Journal Publication
  343. Progressive Science Publications
  344. Prudence Journals
  345. Purple Journals [Link dead as of 2013-10-19]
  346. Quazzy Journals
  347. R & S Publications [Link dead as of 2013-07-04]
  348. Recent Science
  349. RedFame Publishing
  350. Research and Reviews (An International Journals)
  351. Research Online Publishing (RonPub)
  352. Research Publish Journals
  353. Research Publisher
  354. Research WebPub
  355. RG Education Society (RG Journals of Scientific Research)
  356. Rising Vision (RV)
  357. Ross Science Publishers
  358. RS Publication
  359. Sacha International Academic Journals
  360. Sai Om Publications
  361. SAMANM Group of Research Publications (SGRP)
  362. SAVAP International
  363. Savvy Science Publisher
  364. Scholar Journals [Link dead as of 2013-04-20]
  365. Scholar People
  366. Scholar Science Journals
  367. Scholarlink Resource Centre Limited
  368. Scholarly and Academic Research Journals (SARJ)
  369. Scholarly Journals
  370. Scholars Research Library
  371. Scholars Academic and Scientific Publishers (SAS Publishers)
  373. Scholink
  374. Sci Edit Publications
  375. SciDoc Publishers
  376. Sciedu Press
  377. Science & Knowledge Publishing Corporation Limited
  378. Science Academy Publisher
  379. Science Alert
  380. Science and Education Centre of North America
  381. Science and Education Publishing
  382. Science and Engineering Publishing Company
  383. The Science and Information Organization (SAI)
  384. Science and Technology Publishing
  385. Science Education Foundation
  386. Science Instinct Publications
  387. Science Journal Publication (SJP)
  388. Science Park Journals
  389. Science Publications
  390. Science Publishing Group
  391. Science Publishing Corporation
  392. Science Record Journals
  393. Science Target
  394. Science Web Publishing
  395. ScienceDomain International
  396. ScienceHuβ
  397. Scienpress Ltd.
  398. Scientific & Academic Publishing
  399. Scientific and Academic Publication
  400. Scientific Advances Publishers
  401. Scientific Journals
  402. Scientific Journals International
  403. Scientific Online Publishing
  404. Scientific Perspectives Publishing (Scipers)
  405. Scientific Research Publishing (SCIRP)
  406. Scientific Viewers
  407. Scigmoid
  408. Sciknow
  409. SciTechnol
  410. ScottishGroup Education and Testing Services
  411. Scribes Guild
  412. Segment Journals
  413. SETScholars
  414. Seventh Sense Research Group Journals
  415. Signpost e Journals
  416. Silicon Valley Publishers
  417. SPIRI The Global Research
  418. SJournals
  419. Sky Journals
  420. SmartPub (International Academy of Energy, Minerals and Materials)
  421. Society for Science and Nature
  422. Society of Business Research
  423. Society of Engineering Science and Technology (SEST India)
  424. Sphinx Knowledge House
  425. Spring Journals
  426. South Asian Academic Research Journals
  427. Southern Cross Publishing Group
  428. The Standard International Journals
  429. Standard Research Journals
  430. STM Journals
  431. Stringer Open
  432. Suryansh Publications
  433. Swiss Journals
  434. Symbiosis (Symbiosis Online Publishing)
  435. Synergy Publishers
  436. T&S Journal PUblications
  437. Technical Journals Online
  438. Technopark Publications
  439. Textroad Journals
  440. Thavan E ACT International Journals
  441. TI Journals
  442. Time Journals
  443. Tomas Publishing
  444. Topclass Global Journals
  445. Trade Science, Inc
  446. Trans Stellar (Transstellar)
  447. Transaction Series on Engineering Sciences and Technologies
  448. Transnational Research Journals (formerly Universal Research Journals)
  449. TSPublications [Link dead as of 2013-08-23]
  450. U.S. Science Press
  451. Unique Research Journals
  452. Universal Association of Computer and Electronics Engineers(UACEE)
  453. Universal Association of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineers(UAMAE)
  454. Universal Research Publications
  455. Valleys International
  456. VBRI Press
  457. Whites Science Journals
  458. Victorquest Publications
  459. Watch Plus
  460. We-Together to Save Yourself Society
  461. Wilolud Journals
  462. Wireilla Scientific Publications
  463. World Academic Journal of Business & Applied Sciences (WAJBAS Publishing) [Publisher]
  464. World Academic Publishing
  465. World Academic Union
  466. World Academy of Research and Publication
  467. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET)
  468. World Business Institute Also here:
  469. World Journal of Publisher (WJP)
  470. World Open Access Journals
  471. World Scholars
  472. World Science Publisher
  473. World Science Research Journals (WSR Journals)
  474. World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS)
  475. World Standard Organization
  476. Wudpecker Research Journals
  477. Wyno Academic Journals

List 2: Questionable Standalone Journals

This year’s list contains 303 titles; last year’s had 126.

  1. Academic Exchange Quarterly
  2. Academicus International Scientific Journal
  3. Academy of Contemporary Research Journal (AOCRJ)
  4. Acta  de Gerencia Ciencia (CAGENA)
  5. Advances in Forestry Letter
  6. Al Ameen Journal of Medical Sciences (AJMS)
  7. American Journal of Advanced Drug Delivery
  8. American Journal of Advances in Medical Science (ARNACA)
  9. American Journal of Engineering Research
  10. American Journal of Pharmacy and Health Research (AJPHR)
  11. American Journal of PharmTech Research (AJPTR)
  12. American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics
  13. American Journal of Social issues and Humanities 
  14. American Research Journal
  15. Anglisticum: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
  16. Archives Des Sciences Journal
  17. Archives of Pharmacy Practice
  18. ARNACA American Journal of Advances in Medical Science
  19. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
  20. Asian Journal of Health and Medical Sciences
  21. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences
  22. Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences (AJBMS)
  23. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences
  24. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Life Science
  25. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care (AJPRHC)
  26. Australasian Journal of Herpetology
  27. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
  28. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research (AJBMR)
  29. Ayupharm: International Journal of Ayurveda and Allied Sciences
  30. The Bioscan
  31. Bioresearch Bulletin
  32. Bioscience Discovery
  33. Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia (BBRA)
  34. British Biomedical Bulletin
  35. British Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences
  36. British Journal of Science
  37. Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences & Applications
  38. Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research
  39. Bulletin of Society for Mathematical Services and Standards
  40. Calodema
  41. Canadian Chemical Transactions
  42. Case Studies Journals
  43. Chemical Science Transactions
  44. Computer Science Chronicle
  45. Computer Science Journal
  46. The Criterion: An International Journal in English
  47. Current Biotica
  48. Current Discovery
  49. Current Trends in Technology and Sciences (CTTS)
  50. Direct Research Journals
  51. E-Library Science Research Journal
  52. ExcelingTech Publishing Company, Ltd.
  53. Elixir International Journal (formerly Elixir Online  Journal)
  54. FOREX Technical Journal Library
  55. Frontiers in Aerospace Engineering
  56. Galaxy: International Multidisciplinary Research Journal
  57. Global Journal of Management Science and Technology
  58. Global Journal of Medicine and Public Health
  59. Golden Research Thoughts
  60. Indian Journal of Applied-Basic Medical Sciences
  61. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research (IJPBR)
  62. Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki
  63. Indian Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biotechnology (IJRPB)
  64. Indian Journal of Scientific Research (IJSR)
  65. Indian Streams Research Journal
  66. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
  67. Indo-Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  68. Innovations in Pharmaceuticals and Pharmacotherapy (IPP)
  69. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business
  70. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business (IDJRB)
  71. International Ayurvedic Medical Journal (IAMJ)
  72. The International Asian Research Journal (TIARJ)
  73. International Design Journal
  74. The International Interdisciplinary Journal of Education (IIJE)
  75. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Applications
  76. International Journal of Advanced Research
  77. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering (IJARCCE)
  78. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering (IJARCSEE)
  79. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering (IJARCSSE)
  80. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science & Technology (IJARCST)
  81. International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering (IJAREEIE)
  82. International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Research (IJATER)
  83. International Journal of Advancements in Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering
  84. International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology(IJOART)
  85. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology(IJAET)
  86. International Journal of Advances in Power Systems (IJAPS)
  87. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences (IJACS)
  88. International Journal of Agricultural Management & Development
  89. International Journal of Agronomy & Plant Production
  90. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology (IJABPT)
  91. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature
  92. International Journal of Applied Research & Studies (iJARS)
  93. International Journal of Applied Research & Studies (iJARS)
  94. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology(IJASBT)
  95. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Mechatronics
  96. International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research
  97. International Journal of Bio (IJOBIO)
  98. International Journal of Biomedical Science
  99. International Journal of Business and Commerce
  100. International Journal of Bussiness and Management Invention
  101. International Journal of Business and Social Research
  102. International Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences(IJCPS)
  103. International Journal of Communication Networks and Information Security (IJCNIS)
  104. International Journal of Computational Engineering Research
  105. International Journal of Computer & Electronics Research (IJCER)
  106. International Journal of Computer and Information Technology(IJCIT)
  107. International Journal of Computer Applications
  108. International Journal of Computer Application and Engineering Technology (IJCAET)
  109. International Journal of Computer Applications in Engineering Sciences (IJCAES)
  110. International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics
  111. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
  112. International Journal of Computer Science and Network (IJCSN)
  113. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security(IJCSNS)
  114. International Journal of Computer Science Engineering (IJCSE)
  115. International Journal of Computer Science Issues
  116. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences
  117. International Journal of Current Research
  118. International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review(IJCRAR)
  119. International Journal of Current Research and Review
  120. International Journal of Current Science
  121. International Journal of Development and Sustainability (IJDS)
  122. International Journal of Development Research
  123. International Journal of Drug Development and Research (IJDDR)
  124. International Journal of E-Computer Science Evolution
  125. International Journal of Economics and Research
  126. The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment
  127. International Journal of Electrochemical Science
  128. International Journal of Electronics and Computer Research (IJECR)
  129. International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer Engineering
  130. International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer Technology (IJECCT)
  131. International Journal of Emerging Sciences (IJES)
  132. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
  133. International Journal of Energy & Technology
  134. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology(IJEAT)
  135. International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
  136. International Journal of Engineering and Computer Science (IJECS)
  137. International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology(IJEIT)
  138. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research(IJEMR)
  139. The IJES: The International Journal of Engineering and Science
  140. International Journal of Engineering and Science Invention (IJESI)
  141. International Journal of Engineering Inventions
  142. International Journal of Engineering Research
  143. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications
  144. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development(IJERD)
  145. International Journal of Engineering Research and Science & Technology (IJERST)
  146. International Journal of Engineering Science & Advanced Technology
  147. International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT)
  148. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology
  149. International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology (IJESRT)
  150. International Journal of English and Education
  151. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies (IJ-ELTS)
  152. International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences
  153. International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Sciences
  154. International Journal of Governance
  155. International Journal of Health Research
  156. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research
  157. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI)
  158. International Journal of Humanities, Engineering and Pharmaceutical Sciences
  159. International Journal of Information and Communication Research
  160. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Research
  161. International Journal of Information Technology & Business Management
  162. International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science (IJITCS)
  163. International Journal of Innovative Ideas
  164. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development
  165. International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies
  166. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE)
  167. International Journal of Inventions in Pharmaceutical Sciences(IJIPS)
  168. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World
  169. International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Computing (IJLREC)
  170. International Journal of Life science and Pharma Research
  171. International Journal of Life Sciences Biotechnology and Pharma Research (IJLBPR)
  172. The International Journal of Management
  173. International Journal of Management and Business Studies (IJMBS)
  174. International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences (IJMESS)
  175. International Journal of Management Research and Business Strategy (IJMRBS)
  176. International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research (IJMSBR)
  177. International Journal of Mathematical Research & Science
  178. International Journal of Mathematics and Soft Computing (IJMSC)
  179. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health (IJMSPH)
  180. International Journal of Medical Sciences and Health Care (IJMSHC)
  181. International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences(IJMRHS)
  182. International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research
  183. International Journal of Medicine and Biosciences
  184. International Journal of Medicobiologial Research
  185. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)
  186. International Journal of Novel Drug  Delivery Technology
  187. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences (IJPBS)
  188. International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Research Science (IJPRS Journal)
  189. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research
  190. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phytopharmacological Research (eIJPPR)
  191. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development(IJPRD)
  192. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention (IJPSI)
  193. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research
  194. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research(IJPSR)
  195. International Journal of Pharmacy
  196. International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (IJPT)
  197. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
  198. International Journal of Power Electronics Engineering
  199. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research
  200. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE)
  201. International Journal of Recent Trends in Electrical & Electronics Engineering (IJRTE)
  202. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Computer Engineering (IJRICE)
  203. International Journal of Research Development (IJORD)
  204. International Journal of Research in Aeronautical and Mechanical Engineering (IJRAME)
  205. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy
  206. International Journal of Research in Computer Science
  207. International Journal of Research in Computer Technology
  208. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJREAT)
  209. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology(IJRET)
  210. International Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Sciences
  211. International Journal of Reviews in Computing
  212. International Journal of Science and Advanced Technology (IJSAT)
  213. International Journal of Science and Technology
  214. International Journal of Science Commerce and Humanities (IJSCH)
  215. International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries
  216. International Journal of Sciences (IJSciences)
  217. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research
  218. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research (IJSER)
  219. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP)
  220. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology
  221. International Journal of Scientific Research and Application (IJSRA Publishing)
  222. International Journal of Scientific Research in Education
  223. The International Journal of Social Sciences (TIJOSS)
  224. International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering
  225. International Journal of Sport Studies (IJSS)
  226. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications (IJTRA)
  227. International Journal of Trends in Economics Management and Technology (IJTEMT)
  228. International Journal of Universal Pharmacy and Bio Sciences(IJUPBS)
  229. International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC)
  230. International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science (IRJES)
  231. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences(IRJABS)
  232. International Research Journal of Applied Finance
  233. International Research Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences (IRJPAS)
  234. International Researchers
  235. Journal der Pharmazie Forschung (RAPSR)
  236. Journal of Advances in Internal Medicine
  237. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons (JPANDS)
  238. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences (Nairobi, Kenya)
  239. Journal of Applied Pharmacy
  240. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
  241. Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy [Link dead as of 2013-05-06]
  242. Journal of Behavioral Sciences in Asia
  243. Journal of Bio Innovation
  244. Journal of Business Management and Applied Economics
  245. Journal of Business Research (İşletme Araştırmaları Dergisi)0
  246. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
  247. Journal of Computing
  248. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine
  249. Journal of Cosmology
  250. Journal of Current Pharma Research
  251. Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences
  252. Journal of ELT and Applied Linguistics (JELTAL)
  253. Journal of Environmental Hydrology
  254. Journal of Global Research in Computer Science (JGRCS)
  255. Journal of International Academic Research for Multidisciplinary(JIARM)
  256. Journal of International Management Studies
  257. Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology
  258. Journal of Medical Research and Practice (JMRP)
  259. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences (JPBMS)
  260. Journal of Science Editing
  261. Journal of Scientific Theory and Methods
  262. Kashmir Economic Review
  263. The Macrotheme Review
  264. Mathematical and Computational Applications (MCA)
  265. Modern Behavioral Science
  266. The Modern Journal of Applied Linguistics (MJAL)
  267. National Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
  268. National Journal of Medical and Dental Research
  269. Oriental Journal of Computer Science and Technology
  270. People’s Journal of Scientific Research
  271. The Pharma Research (Journal)
  272. Pharmacologia
  273. PharmacologyOnline (PhOL)
  274. PHARMANEST: An International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences
  275. Plant Digest
  276. Reef Resources Assessment and Management Technical Paper
  277. Research Directions: International Multidisciplinary Research Journal (Research Directions Journal
  278. Research in Biotechnology
  279. Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering and Science
  280. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences (RJPBCS)
  281. Researchers World – Journal of Arts Science & Commerce
  282. Review of Research
  283. Reviews of Progress
  284. Romanian Biotechnological Letters
  285. Science International
  286. Science Park
  287. Science Research Reporter
  288. Science Reuters
  289. Scientific World
  290. Seventh Sense Research Group Journal
  291. South Asian Journal of Mathematics
  292. Tactful Management Research Journal (TMRJ)
  293. Technics Technologies Education Management
  294. Universal Journal of Applied Computer Science and Technology
  295. Universal Journal of Computer Science and Engineering Technology (UniCSE)
  296. Universal Journal of Pharmacy (UJP Online)
  297. Weekly Science International Research Journal
  298. World Applied Sciences Journal
  299. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (WJPR)
  300. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (WJPPS)
  301. World Journal of Science and Technology (WJST)

208 Responses to List of Predatory Publishers 2014

  1. Samir Hachani says:

    Quite an impressive list indeed !!! Jeffrey is too modest: he has almost single handedly uncover these so called publishers. His work is simply great !!!! I find in his list an incommensurable source.Keep up the good work , Jeff and happy new year debunking the falsies !!!!

  2. rbb says:

    Still, most the “big name” or established scientific journals charge a lot. This is due to production by publishers that make a profit (not a bad thing yet fees seem high). These lists are helpful but many review committees etc may not have them handy. To me (a senior scientist), I would assign a value of zero to some of these titles. Thus, if I was reviewing a colleague for promotion, tenure and the like, I would give higher value to established journals and those that appear legit (have anonymous peer review).

  3. John says:

    Thanks for your work.

  4. Dr.Syed Md.Zainul Abedin says:

    Thank you Jeffrey Beall for your continued efforts to establish order in publishing articles.
    Wish you a very Happy New Year 2014!
    I like to publish this post in my website, for further dissemination.I hope you will accord permission to publish.
    I will publish the full article with your name and cite the link in my website.
    Best regards,
    Dr.Syed Md.Zainul Abedin

  5. […] Beall ha pubblicato il nuovo elenco dei predoni dell’Open […]

  6. Ogwo says:

    Thanks for this update. Indeed, from the questionable publisher list, it is clear that this has become a growth industry. What a shame! Is it possible to be further guided with a list of fairly acceptable publishers, in the general area of Business and Management Studies?

  7. Bhaskar says:

    Thanks Jeff. This is the my first visit to your list… Mixed feelings! I have two papers with publishers that feature on this list, viz. Academic Journals and Medwell Journals. Could it be possible (being optimistic) that some of the journals (lets say those that published my papers) by these publishers are not as malafide?

    I published one paper with Medwell Journals in ‘Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances’ that claims to have an IF=0.39. The manuscript underwent rigorous review; I was asked to include more statistical treatment of my data and add more papers to the discussion and even re-format some of the references cited. However, when they published it, they misspelt one of the table legends as ‘Tabel No. 1′.

    The other paper in ‘African Journal of Mirobiology Research’ did not ‘bother’ me much; they simply asked me to explain few points and justify my conclusions in greater detail. This journal also claims to have an IF = 0.7; in fact, they do not claim but I found this IF for the journal on ResearchGate.

    Moreover, both these journals have a very fair metric (6.8 and 7 out of 10, respectively) in the NAAS journal index maintained by National Academy of Agricultural Research, India – the source from where I learnt about these journals and also the major reason why I submitted to them.

    I shall be happy to know your views on these two journals. Thanks again.

    • I have heard that Thomson Reuters, the publisher of Journal Citation Reports, has removed the impact factor for the Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. Also, I do not see the African Journal of Microbiology Research as having an impact factor at all. I looked this up in JCR and present here a selection from their list. The journal would fall here if it were on the list:

      African Journal of Psychiatry
      African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicines
      African Natural History

      I still recommend that researchers not submit any papers to the journals published by Medwell Journals and by Academic Journals. Thanks.

  8. Corey Allen says:

    Hey Jefferey,

    Thanks for the update. However there are several predators you have missed. SciHub (, they first used an address of Lasani Town, Faisalabad Pakistan but when I questioned them to confirm, they changed their contact details to a PO Box in connecticut. They also have major grammar errors and their website doesn’t work properly.

    Another is AENSI web ( they were first called INSIpub, then they changed to AENSI. They have a series of conferences which if you see are definately not authentic (they dont even have a url).

    We have plenty like eSci Journals Publishing ( From the address you can see this is a scam. It is in a house in a town in Islamabad Pakistan. You can also judge from the quality of the website.

    I also did a bit of a research on Bentham. They are actually based in Pakistan and the person behind it is Atta-ur-Rehman.

    • Hello, thanks for your comment. I do have ScienceHuβ on my list — I listed them under their full name that appears at the top of their website.
      I also have AENSI on my list as well, check here:
      I would love to hear more about your research on Bentham! If you could share your sources with me that would be great. Thanks.

      • Corey Allen says:

        Thanks for your comment. Well I attended one of Bentham’s conferences in Dubai and one of their employee showed me a Pakistani man sitting on the stage and told me that’s the person who runs Bentham.

      • Hello Mr Beall,

        I have once publish with Bentham, not the open access option. They did real peer review and ask for a lot of changes. Then my article got accepted, and typed set, and I received the galley proof.

        After I sent back the galley, they asked me whether or not I would like my article to become highlighted article, etc. Here I attach their offer:

        1. RECENT HIGHLIGHTED ARTICLES: Authors may opt to publicize their abstracts under the relevant research subject at a cost of US$ 600 for 3 months and US$ 800 for 6 months.

        2. IMAGE ON THE FRONT COVER OF THE JOURNAL: Charges for having an image from your article on the front cover of the journal are US$ 800.

        3. BANNER AD ADVERTISING – For your article or a job vacancy: Institutions/universities can publish online banner advertisements at US$ 800 at the journal home page for 2 months. (please contact for details).

        4. COMPANY/SPONSORSHIP LOGO: Company logos can be published on the journal cover page in sponsored issues at a cost of US$ 800.

        5. E-MAIL ADVERTISING: If you want to promote your article through a certain number of emails sent to a targeted audience (for rates please contact

        From their offer I know that highlighted articles are highlighted because the author pays, not due to merit.

        I refused their offer, and you know what? 3 days after my refuse, they sent me a letter, that my article contained many grammatical errors, and should be handled by an editing house, and they suggested one, and for that, I have to pay the editing house.

        I refused their offer, and told them that the 1st reviewer said that the language was OK, and I said them, that if language revision is needed, I prefer to use our own editing house; so I scrutinized the article and found some minor errors and corrected the errors, and sent them back the article, and finally it was published.

        My conclusion: Bentham tries to make authors pay, though we did not opt for open access.

      • Thank you — this is helpful information.

  9. Can anyone provide information as to what it is about “Austin Publishing Group” that got them on the list…. PLEASE.

  10. Andreas says:

    Thanks Jeffery for this update. You are surely doing a formidable job that needs to be encouraged.
    My questions:
    - With about 477 predatory publishers and 303 predatory journals, are we not heading for a situation where all open access journals will be predatory?
    It will thus become very daunting for researchers to find an appropriate journal with acceptable ethical standards to publish their findings, if clear guidelines are not set up and published to guide for the choice of a good journal or publisher.
    - Some publishers are cited as predatory, and not all of the journals they publish are predatory. How then can a choice be made from a journal not cited as predatory but published by a publisher cited as predatory?
    - In an earlier post here the ‘African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicines’ was cited as predatory whereas it is indexed in PUMED which is the most reliable international platform of medical publications. How can this paradox be explained?
    Happy New Year, and continue in the same direction with the same strength in 2014.

    Yaounde- Cameroon

  11. Nana Yaw says:

    It is quite interesting to note this list again. Well, I have mixed feelings about such list. First, this list does what western social science does so well: creation of binary opposites in which the category that is associated with established western institutions is deemed correct/better/standard.

    Second, OA journals (I mean those that do not charge authors processing fee and still make their articles publicly available) particularly from non-western societies seem to challenge the old opinion that English, French, and German and their institutions are the epistemic centres for knowledge production and production (this is probably unknown to many young western scholars and the older ones who have taken everything they find in academia for granted as what ought to be or ordained by providence) . Indeed, they have challenged the old view that scientific knowledge production is lower in non-western societies relative to western societies.

    Unknown to many western scholars, these journals are springing up in reaction to the view that to be recognized one must publish in western journals. What you don’t realize is that many of them have national reputation and are a reflection of their national self-determination.

    Again, the use of language as one of the criteria of assessment worries me. If you are a native speaker of English , pray that what happened to Latin does not happen to English and Chinese takes over as the next so-called international language. My English may not be as good as that of a native speaker and I won’t apologize for it.

    Now I see why Russia and other BRICS countries have their own national citation index; I believe many more separate national citation indices will appear just for simple reason of national self-determination. And one thing that is also certain is that Jeff’s list will get longer and longer each year because people are just tired of this academic imperialism and want academic independence. Note that many of these journals are part of the calls to indigenize the social sciences and as much as the indigenization fire burns, Jeff you will have a great deal to do.

    Indeed, things fall apart (Chinua Achibe); the centre can no longer hold and must give way for multi-epistemic centres of knowledge production and dissemination.

    So do you think any western journal will publish such style of writing? We know to be published in “Jeff’s acceptable journals”, one must be a “good boy” and not challenge anything but “bad boys” must also publish so the OA journals proliferation. Posterity in their own nations will judge the worth of their work.They represent part of a long struggle for mental emancipation from the shackles of the colonial mentality of reduced self-esteem and dependency.

    Well, these are my thoughts. You will want to read Claude Ake’s “Social Science Imperialism” and Kwesi Yankah’s “Globalization and the African Scholar”.

    • It is very easy to see that you missed the entire point of the blog page and its purpose. This has nothing whatsoever to do with academic or social imperialism. It’s about ethics. If you have to lie and be deceptive in order to gain approval and acceptance in the international community when it comes to “scholarly” activity your sense of “self-determination” seriously needs help. That’s a rather twisted view perspective on becoming self-actualized and/or self-determined.

  12. caddisfly2002 says:

    It greatly appears that you missed the entire point of why this list was created to begin with. This has nothing whatsoever to do with academic imperialism or implying that one society is better than another. It’s about integrity and ethics. If you have to lie and be deceptive in order to gain acceptance and approval for what you deem “national self-determination”, you have some serious issues and you need to get help.

    With regard to the use of language as being part of the criteria, whatever happen to being responsible and accountable for one’s own work? If a journal or publisher is wanting to be recognized and taken seriously, don’t you think that producing work that is grammatically correct and void of spelling errors is a necessity regardless of the language that it is publishing in? That’s what editors are for!!!!! If you don’t have an adequate command of the language in which you are publishing the document then hire an editor who is fluent in the language. It’s NOT that difficult.

    If those on the list want to be recognized, approved, and legitimized, then they need to stop doing those things that are considered unethical. They should meet the same requirements as any other organization that seeks to thrive in the field of publishing… i.e., conduct themselves in an ethical and professional manner. As far as authors go, if your work is so substandard that you cannot publish in a legitimate journal with a a legitimate publisher and you are not willing to polish your work and do what it takes to make it better, then perhaps you should not be publishing at all. There is plenty of garbage out there for the world to read. We don’t need anyone adding more garbage to the already existing pile.

    Lastly, keep in mind that when we use the word “academic” we are implying quality and a high standard. Unfortunately, there are way too many people that simply don’t have the ability and are not willing to do what is necessary to foot the bill.

    • Nana Yaw says:

      Interestingly surprising! Well, I do agree with you about ethics and quality. I do agree that it is annoying to read a paper full of mistakes and false claims. But who defines the standard of ethical behaviour and quality? I was questioning who determines the criteria and based on whose standards. You may not appreciate whatever I said because probably you take most things you came to meet on this earth as given.

      By my submission, I wanted to draw attention to the fact that there are varied reasons for the proliferation of OA journals: some want to cheat academics who want promotion and others do set up these journals because they want a forum where their academics can engage in discussion about issues of national interest. And these issues are less likely to be of adequate universal interest (where universal is what is of interest to home-country academics of many of the established journals). So Jeff’s list must distinguish between pay-and-publish-subscribe journals from publish-and-subscribe journals. Again, a team should work on such lists as peer review that those journals are accused of not carrying out equally exists; that said, there is the risk that the list may be scientific and “useless”. This is because it doesn’t follow the research protocols that can give users assurance of accuracy and lack of bias. If we claim that We love what Jeff is doing, let’s encourage him to share the methodology used (not a list of criteria) and data by way of publication.

      Postmodernist philosophy and critical realism question views that empirical world is the real world. Underneath the empirical world is the real world and that needs deconstruction. No wonder critical realists describe the positivist reality as naive realism. In short, there is always a motive underneath the surface that we must search for. Questions like: Who funds this research and why? Is the principal researcher on the board any of the established journals? Are there any conflicts of interest that we must know? Has there been any incident at his university that drove him to do this and full disclosure thereof? Accurate answers will increase confidence in the list.

      Though I believe that such a list properly produced by all stakeholders is needed (and he has shown the way), I will not be a good boy and accept it just because it has been produced.

      • Nana Yaw says:

        “Other examples of hidden institutional ethnocentrism can be found in the channels of academic communication, such as journals. Howitt and Owusu- Bempah (1994) report that they ‘have been told by white journal editors that the language we use in academic papers is unacceptable and has to be toned- down or removed as a condition of acceptance for publication’ (p. 136). Asking for a change in tone, streamlining arguments and other revisions can be used as an instrument to censor papers that use a different voice. This is not censorship in a crude way but it expresses the ‘repressive tolerance’ of Western academia, according to which papers are accepted as long as they are palatable to the mainstream.” Teo and Febbraro (2003)

  13. Eko Suyono says:

    Very important information that We should know..Please always up date the list… tks bell…

  14. Jaap Timmer says:

    Reblogged this on Culture Matters and commented:
    Here’s an interesting list of allegedly predatory journals, but even more interesting is the troll of comments below the list. While I tend to agree with those who talk in favour of open-access forums, I would, when searching for a journal to publish my article, check this list and of course do some careful research on the journals that attract my attention.

  15. Erick says:

    Have you heard anything about a publisher called “Research Trends.” I got an invitation to submit an article for what I think is an annual “Current Trends in Neurology.” I had an unpublished review article (from my diss. that my advisor let languish) and I figured I’d see if I could dust it off and get it published. After several rounds of emails, I found their manuscript submission to be strange (“send an email to email id:“), and I could not locate academic credentials of anyone listed on their editorial board. I DID see a few publications from the journal in PubMed, though. Very strange experience and I ended up not submitting the article to them, but probably wasted a lot of time.

    • Yes, but I don’t think this is an open-access publisher, so I haven’t fully analyzed it. I do regularly receive emails asking about this publisher, an indication that some at least find it questionable.

  16. […] The 2014 list (actually two lists) were posted by Jeffery Beall (U. of Colorado-Denver) on his Scholarly Open Access blog late last week. There are more than 477 publishers listed. The 2013 list contained 225. […]

  17. Atef Alsarayreh says:

    Thanks a lot for all you efforts Jeffery Beall.

  18. Z says:

    Hi Jeffery,
    Can you please tell me about the status of “International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Engineering (IJMSE)”.

  19. Shahzad Khan says:

    Jeffrey i have two queries about your work. first all open access journals are nor predators, that why i will suggest to do include some paid access journal for example Actual problem of Economics Ukraine based journal has recently removed from JCR. actually one of my paper accepted there but fortunate i came to know on time that it has been removed from JCR.
    Secondly there are good journals in open access for example economic insight trends and challenges, Management and Marketing for knowledge society in which i have published my articles they do give a fair double review to articles.

    well i will suggest that not only criticize open access problems are also exit in paid journals.

    Please note that i am university lecturer and does not belong to any journal or publisher.

    • There are many people who are already describing the problems associated with subscription journals such as Actual Problem of Economics. My voice is not needed there. I choose to limit my research and work and commentary in the area of predatory open-access scholarly publishers and standalone journals. My goal is to help researchers avoid being scammed by these corrupt publishers.

      • Dear Mr Beall,
        If you only limit on predatory open access, why did you include Trade Science as predatory publisher? Journals from trade science (Biotechnology: an Indian Journal [already vol 7 last year, and already included in scopus], and Biochemistry: an Indian Journal) are not open access. Moreover, they do not charge authors.

        I have no association with Trade Science or India, You can check it in the editorial board members.

      • This is a fair question. Thanks for asking it. Trade Science used to be at least partly OA. You are correct that the publisher appears to have switched its model to subscription / toll-access. It also appears that they have launched a bunch of journals, many of which are mere templates, devoid of any scholarly content. I think an exception is warranted here because I would still like to warn researchers about this publisher. I don’t think it’s a good place to submit good research, and including them in the list will help convey that warning.

  20. Rubin Cohen says:

    I follow our website with interest. I would like to share with you the email I had just received. It all looks very legitimate with the publisher’s address being in San Diego. They are “ardent to promote erudite, pragmatic, and contemporaneous research…”

    Dear Dr XXXXX
    Greetings for the day!

    In view of your scientific reputation and trustworthiness in your field, we would like to invite you to submit a short communication/perspective/Research/Review on your research area for publication in our upcoming issue.

    Clinical Research in Pulmonology is ardent to promote erudite, pragmatic, and contemporaneous research in the fields of Pulmonology & respiration through open Access platform. This open access journal facilitates rapid publication with unlimited dissemination of knowledge to readers.

    If you are interested, kindly let us know your possible date of submission.

    Anticipating your kind positive response


    Mark Victor
    Editorial Office-
    Clinical Research in Pulmonology
    JSciMed Central
    2952 Market Street, Suite 140
    San Diego, California 92102, USA
    Tel: 1-302-360-8046
    Fax: 1-302-360-8174
    Toll free number: 1-800-762-9856
    For more info, please visit our website:

    • Pretty much everything about their email is bogus. The names are fake, and the location is fake. They use a mail forwarding service as their “headquarters.” Their so-called headquarters used to be in Delaware. I strongly recommend against submitting papers to this bogus publisher.

      • Dear Mr. Beall,
        How did you know that an e-mail is bogus, and a name or a location is fake? Also, how did you know that their so-called headquarter is in Delaware, while it is written: 2952 Market Street, Suite 140 San Diego, California 92102, USA?

        Thank you

      • I don’t always know with 100% certainty that a name is fake, but when the spam email contains many grammatical and other errors and is then signed with a name like Tom Brown, then I think it’s fair to say that something is suspicious. Regarding addresses, in this case, this publisher changed its address from that of the incorporation agent it used in Delaware to that of a mail-forwarding service in San Diego. I think the publisher is really based in South Asia and uses American addresses to fool people into thinking it is U.S.-based.

  21. I have experience as a contributor with two of the organizations that you list as questionable publishers. First, OMICs Group. I attended and presented at one of their conferences and was very pleased at how professional they were despite their small size. My article was not accepted by their peer review committee. Next, Photon Journal for Public Health. Very professional and did everything they said they would do within the timeframe they promised. They put a lot of good peer-reviewed comments into my paper and required that I make the changes. They were very professional. Their website needs work. It is difficult to browse articles. In neither case did I find anything questionable about these organizations at all.

  22. Lynn Pospiech says:

    Do you have any insight on the publisher “European Society for Translational Medicine” and/or their journal “New Horizons in Translational Medicine”?

    The website states that authors can expect a decision or revision request within 2 weeks of manuscript receipt, and also that “After acceptence of manuscript, author will get an invoice for relevant publication/designing charges which should be paid before further processing of the manuscript” but I see no mention of the fees.

    Their so-called Executive and Advisory Board lists look suspicious.

    Thank you for providing this valuable service to the research community!

    • No, I haven’t heard of this journal before, but your excellent observations certainly have raised my eyebrows. I am going to give this journal a full analysis. They require copyright transfer, yet they charge an undisclosed fee. If you want a PDF of an article you have to pay, but they are available for free on the annoying flash viewer. This is highly questionable. Thanks for letting me know about it.

  23. fakhariyan says:

    Thank you Mr. Beall for your helpful list. Have you heard of the journal Frontiers of Language and Teaching? Is this a predatory journal?

    • There seem to be several publications with this title. Do you mean the one that is the conference proceedings for the conference with the same name? It appears to be a subscription journal, so I can’t see it, but based on what I can see it looks legitimate.

  24. Nick H. says:

    Thank you for this list. It will be quite the resource for the near future. I have a quick question for you, what about the Journal of Environmental Hydrology makes it questionable (beyond the obvious problems with the website)? Additionally, the have Roger Peebles listed as in charge of the JEH. I am assuming that is the same as the Roger Peebles that is listed on the email newsletters and this Roger Peebles and this Roger Peebles Just interested in your thoughts on this journal and this individual. Thanks.

    • The journal was added because, at the time of the analysis, the journal required that authors themselves arranged the peer review before submitting the paper to the journal. Additionally, problems were found with duplicate publication and plagiarism. No comment on Dr. Peebles.

      • Nick H. says:

        Thank you for your reply Jeffrey. Good to know that there were problems found of duplication and plagiarism.

  25. […] Segundo alguns pesquisadores, existem hoje mais de quatro mil periódicos predatórios sendo publicados, o que representa, no mínimo, um quarto do número de periódicos de acesso livre. Para publicar seus artigos científicos sem muito esforço, são cobradas taxas que variam entre duzentos a três mil dólares. Em muitos casos, os autores só descobrem o “valor da fatura” após a publicação do artigo científico. Uma lista atualizada de títulos de periódicos predatórios é mantida por Jeffrey Beall, bibliotecário da Universidade do Colorado, no blog Scholarly Open Access. […]

  26. Harry Tsapkota says:

    Hi Jeff.
    Could you tell me about International Journal of Forestry Research of Hindawi publication? is it legit???? or predatory???

    • I generally analyze at the publisher level rather than the individual journal level. Hindawi is not on my list of questionable publishers. I do receive complaints about Hindawi, however. They use spam a lot, most of their over 500 journals lack editors in chief, and it seems to be a publisher that focuses just on the authors’ needs and not so much the readers’.

      • RMS says:

        I had a publication with Hindawi recently published. I felt the peer-review and copy-editing were very professional, so I am satisfied. I am not sure if all journals they publish are the same or not, in my case it was The Scientific World Journal, their largest publication I believe.

      • RMS says:

        I just want to add a few more comments on my experience publishing with Hindawi’s The Scientific World Journal (TSWJ). As I said I am satisfied with the way the paper was handled, especially the speed from submission to publication and the quality of the copy-editing. I do realize, however, that the peer-review was a bit “light”. I’ll explain why I feel that way.

        My co-authored paper was reporting what can be considered “negative” results, meaning we carried out a series of experiments to test a hypothesis, which turned out not to work. We did this as it had been reported in literature (in a reputable journal), and disseminated in the media, that a new additive would, to put it plainly, make wonders for the reaction I was studying. When we realized that it didn’t work, immediately I started to wonder what journal may be interested in publishing such result.

        I assessed that the more established journal, where I’ve published more “interesting” results, may not be thrilled with this paper. I also imagined that some peer-reviewers very knowledgeable in the area might give us some trouble with our findings; for example, perhaps disagreeing with our methodology, or giving some other reason why they thought we did something wrong (which we are quite confident we didn’t).

        Then I received an email from Hindawi, which many people find annoying, but in this case seemed quite inviting. They were offering free publication in TSWJ for all submissions received during one month related to chemical engineering. I looked up the journal and was pleased to see it is indexed in Scopus and has an ISI IF. I also saw that it has a style comparable with PLOS ONE, in that it will publish a wide range of subjects, but even more general. I also liked that subject areas were categorized in the journal, so that all chemical engineering papers, for example, are in their own subdivision. And finally, I was intrigued by the peer-review model, which is somewhat open (the reviewers names appear on the final paper) and is mainly dependent on reviews by editorial board members. This meant it was unlikely anyone with a vested interest in mineral carbonation (possibly to up the point of a conflict of interest), that could give unnecessary grief over the paper, would review it.

        So within the month we finalized the paper and submitted two days before the end of the “promotion”. Just over one month later, I got the email with the reviewers’ comments and the editorial decision. It was accepted. So what about the reviewer’s comments? Well, they had a few minor comments (very few in fact, but relevant comments). But the interesting thing was that the decision email said that, and I quote, “changes that you may want to make in order to improve your manuscript before final publication”. The key word is “may”. This apparently means we could have ignored the comments and made no changes. We made the changes, because we saw value, and because we wanted to make sure my published paper was a peer-reviewed version and not just the submitted manuscript. Not that a submitted manuscript cannot be accepted directly without changes, I actually had two such papers previously published in more established reputable journals. But for this specific paper and journal, I felt we had to do some kind of revision, basically to give reassurance over the negative findings we were reporting.

        So there you go, my plan to get the negative results published worked, just as I imagined. The conclusion? It appears, from this experience, that TSWJ does not perform as thorough reviewing as some other journals, and does not have a mechanism in place (e.g. a knowledgeable editor-in-chief) to ensure that papers get revised according to all the reviewer’s comments. Of course, this is only one paper’s experience. If I submit to them again in the future, I might get another experience. So that’s my two cents on this subject.

      • EGPF says:

        I have published two papers at Psyche, from Hindawi. I will tell of my experience here.
        Psyche was a very reputable journal in past decades, especially among researchers working with social insects. Hindawi decided to revive this journal, and spread a good marketing about it, while managing to amass a good list of reputed editors from the field. Also they were good enough to include in their website .pdfs to all papers by Psyche from the old days, all available for free. I thus decided to publish two relevant papers in it as it looked like a very promising growing, open-acces journal. I was quite satisfied with the quality of peer-review, and I guess I got reviews from experienced peers in my field. I must mention, however, that they asked me for a list of prospective reviewers, and I do not like this practice by principle.
        Upon publication problems started to show: there is no editor in chief or handling editor, thus formatting and proofs are made by a series of secretaries with weird names, each at a time, and they kept asking unusual demands on file formats and file names, while including many typos and mistakes in the proofs. This problem hit me when publishing both papers. There was no responsible editor to complain about this, or asking for guidance, only several non-scientist secretaries.
        Eventually I managed to publish each paper free of errors, and final quality was good, easy to find, and open-access.
        However I must say that my papers did not make the expected impact, suggesting that readers do not really read them or take them seriously enough. I am not sure about the reasons, but maybe because it is an open-access publisher.
        After many years since its re-inauguration, Psyche still does not have an impact factor. In the endpoint, I feel publishing at Psyche from Hindawi was not a good choice.

  27. Muhammad says: This is new online publisher, within few months it is completed one year journal publication. It is also showing wrong indexation.

  28. Mohammad Shameem Al Mamun says:

    Dear Mr. Beall,

    Thanks for your outstanding works. I am a tea scientist and want to publish a research article in Journal of Tea Science Research Could you please inform me about the journal?

    • That journal is published by Sophia Publishing Group Inc., and this publisher is NOT on my list. I think this journal is okay, and it’s nice to see a specialized journal like this. I think it’s better to have a journal like this one than to have a journal title such as the Journal of Plant Science Research.

    • No — this is a highly questionable publisher. Its name is Progressive Academic Publishing, UK, and it launched recently with ten journals. I recommend that you NOT submit papers to any of its journals. Thanks for letting me know about this new publisher.

  29. Les Biesecker says:

    Hi all
    As others have stated, kudos to Mr. Beall, his work is exemplary!

    I have a suggestion for you all that I have taken up in support of Mr. Beall. Every time I receive one of the endless spam solicitations for one of the companies listed by Mr. Beall, if they claim to have editors with academic affiliations, I look up the editor’s emails and send them the following message and copy the company:

    Dear Doctors/Professors,
    I am writing to you regarding your affiliation with XXXX publications. As you may know, this publisher has been designated as a predatory publisher by Mr. Beall, of the University of Colorado.
    There was also a recent exposé of these publishers in Science magazine, demonstrating that many of them will publish worthless manuscripts.
    I urge you to consider whether your association with this publisher reflects well on your excellent scientific reputations.
    Les Biesecker

    P.S. to XXXXX publications – each time you send me this spam, I will write to the editors.

    I get responses from maybe 1 of 5 of the named scientists – most often to decry that they have no affiliation with the publisher and that they will work to get their name removed. I also copy the company and have received one reply from a publisher claiming that their listing by Mr. Beall is undeserved and that they are appealing. If we make our colleagues aware that we look poorly on such affiliations, this may discourage bogus claims of legitimacy.

  30. You refer initially to the “gold (author pays) open-access model”, but gold open access simply means publishing in open access journals, which may or may not involve author payment. I am just interested to know whether all the journals and publishers listed here require payment (the obvious incentive for a predator) or whether there are predators that seek something other than money. (I can imagine that newer efforts may not charge for early articles just to gain some content, to attempt to demonstrate credibility.)

    • John, my definition of gold open-access is different. I recognize the gold OA model (free to readers, authors pay an article processing charge) and the platinum OA model (free to readers and free to authors). I generally try to limit my list to gold OA publishers and journals, following the definition I give here. I agree with your last statement, that new gold OA publishers frequently waive fees just to get some content, and unfortunately, it’s usually pretty bad.

  31. Binder Jose says:

    Is “International Journal of Electrochemical Science” really a predatory publication? The ISI impact factor was 3.7 in 2011…

    • The current impact factors are the 2012 ones. While that journal may have had an impact factor in 2011, ISI journal citation reports does not list an impact factor for it now. Here are the closest entries, where it would fall:


      It is not uncommon for predatory publishers/journals to lie about having an impact factor. They do this to attract more article submissions.

  32. Binder Jose says:

    Thank you for your response. This journal has lost its impact factor or it was suspended only in 2012?

    • It may be for just this year, or it may be forever. That will be up to Thomson Reuters, the company that publishes the impact factors. The 2013 impact factor data won’t be published until June, so we won’t know until then.

  33. BASUDEB DALAL says:

    Dear Dr, Beall,

    I have published some papers in Photon Foundation Journals. During sendind, I was not judicious about organization. However, out of Curiosity, I sent a letter to Photon Foundation this morning which is as Follows:

    To the Editor in Chief (s),
    (1) The Journal of Toxicology and Health
    (2) The Journal of Public Health
    (3 ) International Journal of Biochemistry
    (4) The Journal of Applied Biochemistry

    Photon Foundation

    Dear Sir,

    It is to draw your kind attention that myself has published papers in the above named journals.

    However, it is not clear to me that what is Impact Index ? Even it is not included in standard directory like Scopus, Pubmed etc. Please clarify the following no.

    What is the relation of Impact Index and Impact factor?

    Why the jounals have no ISSN number ?

    When the letters from various responsible persons used to come to me , it looks like foreigner Name, but the bank account no (0355104000045119) of IDBI of photon where I used to send the processing fees is at Rajasthan, India. It is not clear to me What is the address from where the journals are published? Please clarify it to remove my anxiety.

    During processing, it has been repeatedly observed that same format in same colouration has been used, even without need, during editing for all the aforesaid journals. Moreover, every respected journals clearly mentions the name and address of the Editor in chief whereas none of the above mentioned journals have this thing.

    All this aforesaid matters created hazy impression about Photon foundation Journals. Hope you will kindly clarify the points which I mentioned in my letter.

    An earliest response will help me to send articles faster.

    With regards

    B. Dalal

    Consequently, in reply I receieved a letter from them which is as follows:
    Dear Dr. Basudeb Dalal

    Welcome at Photon.
    Scopus / Pubmed and Photon both are different organizations. We do not govern over Scopus / Pubmed. Published articles are internationally indexed at Photon with a facility to download freely across the world. The Journal of Toxicology and Health: Impact Index: 4.72. The Journal of Public Health: Impact Index: 3.93. International Journal of Biochemistry: Impact Index: 4.52. The Journal of Applied Biochemistry: Impact Index: 2.12. Photon is adapted to next generation Impact Index system, which maintains far superior quality than Impact Factor at global scale. Impact Factor is biased with journal’s self citation tendencies. Various prestigious journals with impact factor are illegally involved in favoring even poor research articles, if they cite their journal. Members of societies / academy find blind / favored acceptance for their research article publications on their own Journals. Impact Factor has commercial business interests in favor of it’s financial investors, instead of academicians. There is no place for such activities in high standards of academics. Quantitatively Impact Index is equal to Impact Factor. ISJN: International Standard Journal Number. ISJN is next generation Universal ID. The Journal of Toxicology and Health, The Journal of Public Health, International Journal of Biochemistry, and The Journal of Applied Biochemistry are published by Photon Foundation. Photon ensures completely blinded review and keeps the process unbiased at every level.

    With Best Wishes

    Editorial Office

    Now tell me

    (1)Quantitatively Impact Index is equal to Impact Factor.

    (2) ISJN: International Standard Journal Number. ISJN is next generation Universal ID. The Journal of Toxicology and Health, The Journal of Public Health, International Journal of Biochemistry, and The Journal of Applied Biochemistry are published by Photon Foundation.

    Statement (1) & (2) are true or false.

    With regards

    B. Dalal


  34. Imran Omer says:

    What about international journal of multidisciplinary and current research ijmcr

  35. Iftikhar Ahmed Khan says:

    What to do, if you have already published some research in the listed journals. Can we publish this some where else?

  36. pongthep says:

    Please check Advanced Materials Research too.

  37. Arben says:

    Dear Mr. Jeffrey Beall,
    Can you tell me about the journal “”, it looks like it has an impact factor and GIF and ICV, and it is free of charge. Please let me know what you think about his journal. Thank very much for your support to the research community.

    • Arben: That journal is published by Innovative Space of Scientific Research (ISSR Journals). This publisher is on my list. I consider the GIF and the ICV to be meaningless metrics. Questionable publishers often waive article processing charges when they first get started, in order to get articles into their empty journals. I recommend that you not submit any papers to this publisher’s journals. Good luck. –Jeffrey

  38. damodar paudel says:

    Dear Mr.Jeffrey Beal,
    could you please tell me about the Global journal of health science?

  39. Arben says:

    Dear Mr. Beall,

    What about this journal “International Journal of Business and Management Science, ISSN: 1985-692X”. Is it ok to publish? What is your first impression. Thank you ?

  40. aiman says:

    Dear Mr. Beall,
    I suggest you to investigate “Indian journal of clinical practice” ISSN 0971-0876 and include it in your list.

  41. […] Corporation. Ne connaissant pas ce journal, ni cet éditeur, je me suis rendu sur la liste de Jeffrey Beall recensant les « éditeurs prédateurs » afin de vérifier qu’Hindawi ne faisait pas partie de cette liste. Apparemment non, mais voici ce […]

  42. Siti Azizah says:

    Dear Mr. Beall, can you tell me about the status of premier Publishers? I want to submit my article to, however I need the status of the journal before I do that. Thanks a lot. You have aver good job!

  43. Mehmet Orgun says:

    Dear Dr. Beall, Do you know much about this OA publisher New World Publishing LLC ( ? Its journals have no editorial board nor content. BTW, thank you for the terrific job you have done here!

  44. Binder Jose says:

    Dear Mr. Beall,
    Can you tell me about “SPIE” publications?

    Thank you very much.


  45. Khalid says:

    Please, dear Beall, What is the status of IISTE?

    • This publisher is on my list of questionable publishers. I recommend that you not submit papers to any of its journals. Instead, I recommend that you find a higher-quality publisher.

  46. Tyler says:

    Reblogged this on Sonic Geography and commented:
    Happy Monday, everyone. I will have the Knoxville Country megapost up here sometime within the next few days, but I just wanted to share this item that I received in a note from a colleague this morning. Everybody has heard of predatory lending, but did you know about predatory publishing? Take a look.

  47. Jan Szczepanski says:

    What about Progressive Academic Publishing, UK in Birmingham?


  48. Jeff says:

    This is an outstanding, helpful list, but I noticed very few Psychology-related journals (even in sub-discplines like Development or Biopsychology or connected fields like Neuroscience). Is this to suggest most open-access journals in the field are acceptable? If no, is there another area where I can find info on open-access Psych-related journals? Thanks for your time and efforts with this ever growing problem

    • Most of the predatory publishers go where the money is, and that is in fields where research is typically funded by grants, like the biomedical sciences. Still, if you look closely at the predatory publishers’ journal portfolios, you will see a good number of psychology journals. I don’t think it’s safe to conclude that most OA psychology journals are acceptable. You have to analyze each one — such a generalization can be dangerous.

      • Jeff says:

        Thanks for the reply. I’ll look deeper into the actual publishers to get a more comprehensive list (to be honest, I only looked at the publisher names and the names of the journal list, I did not look further into the publishers). I agree the assumption that OA journals are acceptable is dangerous. Thank you for spear-heading the process of ensuring the integrity of research in all disciplines!

  49. M. M. Khan says:

    Dear Jeffery Beall! What about this Journal:

    • M. M. Khan says:

      Dear Beall! Waiting for your opinion about the mention Journal. It will help us a lot in possible avoid of this journal.

  50. John says:

    Dear Bill, thank you for your good work. Is the journal of chemical biological and physical sciences predatory?Its website is here:

  51. Steve Kezzler says:

    This kind of reminds me of the Human Fund… “money for people.”

  52. Cleve Smith says:

    How about MDPI journals?

    • Excellent question; I can tell you that I am re-evaluating this publisher at this time for possible inclusion in my list. Please stand by.

    • Cleve Smith says:

      MDPI journal ask for 500CHF publication fee. They also help people to correct English language and then ask for additional 250 CHF. They have scores of journals. It seems to be very profitable.

    • Lachezar Filchev says:

      I submit to MDPI two years ago – and since then I told myself I will not repeat it again. Everything was OK – the journal was brand new, without an IF and of course with the appealing waiver of publicaton fees for the first year of the existence of the journal. My editor was a Chinese (I will not reveal his name unless someone want this), who was very kind and welcoming at the point of acceptance of our paper. We had our paper formally accepted but after we refused to pay 200 Euros for proofread to a company of their choice we were rejected straight away. Of course our work got published where it deserved but ever since I ask myself what is the OpenAccess all about? If it is only about making profits from authors, then it has to be made clear so anyone who want to get into the trap – to get with the conscious that this his/her choice.

      P.S. The issue with MDPI is the poisonous mix of quality papers published by them, good looking and sophisticated publication system, and of course luring offers such as publication fee waivers etc., which at the end are just not true.

  53. Dr. Abdul Md Mazid says:

    I would also like to know about your opinion on MDPI. recently i have reviewed an article for MDPI as they requested me and i found it’s a standard paper. This paper has been published by MDPI on open access mode.That journal, its mentioned, has Impact Factor nearly 2.

    i am thinking to send some paper/s as well to MDPI.

    I would appreciate any comments on MDPI before i upload the paper.

    I have briefly explored website of ORIC publisher, They are proposing, i guess, a few journals including one in Science and Engineering. Scope of this journal includes many fields of engineering. their journals do not show yet ISSN. But my initial impression is that they are well organised and methodical.

    • I am increasingly receiving complaints and inquiries about MDPI. Many complain about the low quality of some of the published papers, while others point out the increasing attention being paid to the firm’s owner, who has become involved in international politics. I recommend that you find a better publisher than MDPI, and this shouldn’t be too hard.

      Regarding ORIC Publications, I recommend that you not submit any papers to this publisher; it is included on my list of questionable publishers.

  54. Benn says:

    Most Western Journals are not accessible to African and Asians who need this information for their development. I have published articles in ‘good’ journals but that information is not freely available to Africans and Asians who generally cannot afford subscription fees. I have also published in one OA journal in the list provided but I was surprised that a local investor had actually accessed the OA information and used it. He did trace me to ask follow up questions about the technology we proposed. Publishing an open access paper in a ‘good journal is also very expensive. The question I will like to ask is how can the knowledge generated be freely accessible by all for human development? If Beall can answer that question, then the list of OA ‘predatory’ journals will start to shrink. If not, then let him be prepared to hit the 1000 mark his list by Jan. 2015. However, if these OA journals come together to improve on the quality of their publishing, then it will be time to start tolling the knell for those so called ‘good’ journals that lock up information for a price. I will rather pay a moderate cost for my paper to be freely available than lock up information in a system that cannot be accessible to the community that I come from.
    Thank you.

    • You don’t know what you’re talking about. The Research4Life program has distributed many subscription journals to academics in developing countries for a long time. OA journals are not the only means for the wide dissemination of science and technology. Science will never be cost-free.

      On the contrary, unaffordable APCs are denying many developing country scholars the opportunity to publish their research findings.

      More information is not better information. The predatory publishers don’t care about quality; that’s the whole point.

  55. John says:

    Dear Beall what about this journal?

    • What is your opinion of the journal? Have you had any experience with it? Are you associated with it? Have you published any papers in it? If so, please let me know what you experience was like.

  56. John says:

    No, I am not associated with it but I have published a paper in it. In afct I am a young junior researcher , it was my first paper and don’t know if it is a good or not. I would like to know if I shall not be ashamed of listing that paper on my publication list in next years.I payed publication fees but it seems that it is a good journal.What is your opinion.Thank you.

  57. Kelechi says:

    I would like to know if “International Journal of Structural and Civil Engineering Research”, “International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering” and “IJET Publications” should be added to your list.

    Thank you.

  58. Matteo says:

    Dear Prof. Beall, I noticed that this list is not updated, some publishers are added or removed from your updated list..I think you must update this list or remove it from this page because this may cause confusion with the updated list (sorry for my english)

  59. Cleve says:

    Hello Jeffrey,

    You are doing an excellent expertised job for all.
    I would like to know your evaluation on the following journal(s):

    American International Journal of Social Science
    ISSN 2325-4149(Print), ISSN 2325-4165(Online)

    Is “social science” in the journal name itself a proper term? Their website also lists 5 other journals, two of which have the same term.

    Thank you!

    • This journal is published by a bogus publisher called the

        Center for Promoting Ideas

      . This publisher is on my list, and I recommend that you not publish in any of its journals. The title sounds okay, but I think most legitimate journals would say “social sciences.”

  60. Jan Szczepanski says:


    Unsure about ISR Journals and publications


  61. Jan Szczepanski says:

    Is this one a good laugh also?


  62. Owho Joni says:


  63. Suhas says:

    I wish to know about the predatory status publisher EM international Pune India?

  64. Suhas says:

    Please find this link for perusal and information.

  65. Suhas says:

    Are you only adding open access journals in your list? This journal is not open access but charge for paper publication.

  66. RF says:

    Hi Jeff,

    This is a comprehensive list. Impressive!
    How about The Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation? Is this a predatory journal or one of the good ones?
    It says in their website ( that it is “one of 5 academic journals published by Academic Conferences Limited.” It is also listed as one of the e-journals published by ACPI (
    I just wanted to know a little more information since they contacted me to be a peer reviewer.

    Many thanks,

  67. Farzana Nipu says:

    please give us the list for trusted one…..

  68. Dear Jeffrey Beall,
    I am Dumcho Wangdi, a teacher from Bhutan, South Asia. I hope you must have heard of my country. I wish you happy new year on behalf of my country mates.
    I have heard of those predator publishers but failed to find the exact list of it. You have done an extraordinary job.
    So, can I have your permission to duplicate it into my blog at so that I and my friends who visit my blog can use it for the reference.
    Remember the source and your phenomenal work will be always acknowledged.
    Please kindly allow me to let thousands of my innocent immature friends realize of your phenomenal work.
    Thank you

  69. Arben says:

    Dear Dr. Beall

    Are all the journals listed under DOAJ ( LEGIT ?!

    Can I find a journal on this directory and publish my work.

    Thank you for your opinion.

    • There is some overlap between my list and DOAJ, so, no, not all of the journals listed in DOAJ are legitimate in my opinion. DOAJ has tightened its criteria over the past year, so it’s not as bad as it once was.

      Yes, you can find a journal on this directory and publish your work, but do so at your own risk. Check to make sure the journal is not also on my list, and talk to senior colleagues in your field about the quality of the journal you want to publish in. Also, read the journal and become familiar with the quality of the articles in it before submitting.

  70. Dear Jeffrey Beall,

    Thankyou for your wonderful work in naming and shaming these destructive publishers and journals.

    Just wondering, since you mentioned them separately in another post but I’m not seeing them on this list – are you going to include the Global Science and Technology Forum (GSTF) based in Singapore? I was recently deluded into submitting a paper to one of their journals and asked for $300 to publish (previously not mentioned in any of their conditions), and their submission process was a complete mess. I’m happy to provide email proof if it would help others to steer clear and not be burned like I was.


  71. Bustomi Rosadi says:

    I mean, Journal of Agriculture Engineering and Biotechnology (JAEB)? Is this a predatory journal?

  72. paul says:

    Thank you for information but what is your criteria for terming some of the publishers as questionable? I have read some of their works and they seem ok. Is it on a case by case or is it a blanket condemnation that they are questionable?

  73. Arun says:

    Dear Beall

    Thank you for the list.

    Is the “Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems” published by “American Scientific Publishers” legit? By going through the website,I did not think so. However, it is not included in your list, but is part of DOAJ website, so I am not sure if this is predatory journal. I would like to know your opinion.

    Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems
    ISSN: 2326-3008 (Print); EISSN: 2326-3024 (Online)


    • Arun: I limit my analyses to open-access journals and publishers. This publisher is not an open-access publisher, so I have not analyzed it and cannot comment on its quality.

      Still, I did look at the journal you mentioned. When I clicked on it I saw this: “Buy & download fulltext article: Price: $113.00 plus tax.” That is very expensive for a single article! If you publish your article in this journal, you risk having very few people read it.

  74. Onah says:

    Please, why is ScienceDomain International included in your list of predator publishers? We sent our work to one of their journals (British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research) and it took about 5 months of rigorous reviews and corrections before the paper was accepted. I am confused here.

  75. gorka says:

    Dear Bell,

    Would you please confirm if the international journal of marine sciences (sophia group) is a predatory journal or not?

    They invite me as a reviewer and I see they charge 1200 per publication although they say to me that since I am reviewing an article I can publish free of charge within 6 months.


  76. tauseef ahmad says:
    can you please let me , know about this journal , and about he impact factor of this journal , is this impact factor fake.

    • This journal is on my list. It does not have a legitimate impact factor.
      I recommend that you not submit any papers to this bogus journal.

      • tauseef ahmad says:

        sir , i had already submitted the paper , but i was not knowing the fact, Don’t we have any laws so that these can be banned, for cheating scholars, academicians and researchers. what you suggest me further to do?

      • The laws vary by country, but in most cases there are no laws against predatory publishing.

  77. Jan Szczepanski says:

    I would appreciate your opinion about the publisher
    Society for Science and Education


    • I consider this a questionable publisher. It is on my list, and I recommend against submitting papers to this publisher’s journals and against agreeing to serve on its editorial boards.

  78. Dr. Olokooba Saka says:

    Dear Beall, I really commend your work. When i saw the 2014 list i was very sad but at the same time i was happy. The reason for my sadness was that, i have published some of my very good papers in some of those journals which amounted to wastage. However, my happiness now is that i am better informed of the publishing outlets i should use. This is a learning experience, though, a bitter one. Please keep the good work going.

  79. ify says:

    I want to commend you. You are really doing a great work, keep it up. My questions are (1) is it possible for journals or publishers on your list to mend their ways by improving on quality and correct their mistakes and thus be removed from predatory list. (2) can you please give us list of good journals in biomedical science
    From. Ify

  80. bsulis says:

    Reblogged this on Benguet State University Library & Information Services and commented:
    A Warning to our researchers who want to upload!

  81. Siti Azizah says:

    Please be careful of JAERD! I did a mistake by sending my article there!!! I sent my article there in 2011 and I paid $300. Then they ask me to pay again $600 today.. This is a kind of [...] act!

  82. Just Ishaq says:

    Dear Prof. Beall,

    What a great job you did! I would like also to ask your opinion regarding this publisher: Global Science Research Journal (

    I have no connection at all with the publisher. I received several emails from it, invite me to submit manuscript. But, their emails came to spam folder.

    Thank you very much.

    • I’ve added Global Science Research Journals to my list.
      This is a new brand created by International Scholars Journals. They’ve copied a lot of content from their journals into the journals in the new brand.
      The new brand has launched with around 130 journals, and I recommend against submitting to all of them.

  83. Imran Omer says:

    Can you please confirm is it predatory journal or not

    • Oh no, another journal using a blog platform as its publishing platform.
      This seems mostly to be a popular journal rather than a scholarly journal. It also appears that they sell print subscriptions, and that these contain more content than the online version. I don’t want to add this journal to my list at this time. It’s really more of a magazine.

  84. Kevin J. Black, M.D. says:

    Any comments about BaiShiDeng Publishing Group? E.g.

  85. Nilo Bugtai says:

    hi Jeff,

    Please tell me about this journal/publisher Thomson Scientific ISI Web of Knowledge. They told me that if my paper will be accepted I will pay USD 1200 for the publication.

    Thank you very much.

    - Nilo

  86. Hello Jeffrey In your 2014 list I dont see any listing for Scholars’ a trademark of AV Akademikerverlag GmbH& Co. KG. Does this mean then that they are not predatory?
    With grateful thanks
    Melissa Bortz

  87. shingirai sikomwe says:

    thank you Jeffrey , kindly assist me why IISTE is regarded as dubious. I had three papers accepted, they claim to have good impact factor and referenced in a number of publishers

  88. popof says:

    hi, what do you know about future medicine publishing ( do you think they’re predatory too?

  89. Hi Jeff,

    I work in the subscriptions team here at Future Medicine Ltd. I am interested to know why you would recommend caution?

    As you correctly pointed out, we are not an open-access publisher and all our publications are peer-reviewed.

    If you are interested to know more about our peer-review process, you can find information on our website
    Alternatively I would be happy to put you (or anyone with concerns) in touch with one of our commissioning editors who would be able to explain our editorial policy in more detail.

    Annabelle Fairest

  90. Aamer Hanif says:

    Kindly comment if the 4 journals given in following link are recommended for publishing papers. Thank you.
    The publisher is: The International Journal Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore

  91. muafi says:

    Hi Prof. Jeff,
    My paper was receive in ICIMER 2014 (International Conference on Information Management and Education Research) in Shanghai Cina, april 17-18 2014.
    All accepted paper will be published by Atlantis Press and be online available in full text via the publication platform, then be submited for indexed to Thomson ISI, WOS, Scopus.
    But I was doubt to follow in this conference because I am not sure if the conference indexed by Thomson ISI, WOS and Scopus. Are you recommended me to follow? I will be waiting for your information. Thank you very much.

    • Sorry — I limit my analyses to scholarly journals. I don’t know whether this conference is legitimate or not. I recommend caution, especially if you are unfamiliar with the conference.

  92. Zohrain says:

    Hi! I found the information here very useful. I was browsing and found this predatory journal:

    Im guessing they changed the website address as one of the similar name ‘valleys international’ is already included in your questionable publishers list..

    Thanks for all the good work!

  93. Corrado Giuliani says:

    I was wondering why DOAJ keeps in the lis the Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering which is a SCIRP Journal that i guess to understand that is a predatory company.
    Any explanation would be appreciated.
    Thanks for your work, you make my group avoid publishing on the Open Biomedical Engineering Journal by Bentham Science

  94. jane says:

    This is a wonderful page… practically the “don’ts” of where to publish (and I look forward to the “do’s” – which open access journals are trustworthy…!).

    I would like to ask if you know anything about Open Journal of Ophthalmology ( My university has encouraged us to publish in this journal, as they have arranged for a discount on publishing in the next two months. However, I can’t seem to find out anything about it. Is it worthwhile to send articles here, or would you advise caution? I worry about being biased because it seems to be a new journal, but everyone has to start somewhere, after all. thank you very much/

  95. jane says:

    Whoops! sorry about that, am new to this. Just found out – The journal is produced by one of your questionable publishers… uh oh! A comprehensive list indeed! thank you!

  96. Deepak says:

    Dear Mr Beall,

    Is this predatory too. No personal experience but found a mail from them in my inbox:

    Welcome to El Mednifico Journal!
    El Mednifico Journal ( is an open access, quarterly, peer-reviewed journal that aims to publish scientifically sound research across all fields of medicine and public health. It publishes researches as soon as they are ready, without waiting to be assigned to an issue. These articles are then proofread, copyedited and arranged into four issues per volume and one volume per year.

    The scope of the journal encompasses: Clinical Medicine, Laboratory Medicine, Surgery, Public Health, Dental Surgery, Radiology, Pathology, Pharmacy, Nursing, Biophysics, Biochemistry, Health Policy, Global Health, Medical Education and other allied fields.

    All submissions receive the following benefits:

    Quick and efficient peer-review; rapid publication after acceptance
    Submissions are judged according to the content and methods employed
    All articles are published as open access; no submission or processing fees
    Articles are deposited at various indexing and archiving agencies upon publication
    Wide dissemination to readers and researchers throughout the world
    We have a strict policy against plagiarism. All submissions are screened for plagiarism upon receipt. Any submission found to have plagiarized material will be immediately rejected and the authors will be permanently banned on failure to provide adequate clarification.

    We invite notable scientists and medical professionals for post-publication peer-review and debate on articles published in the current issue. Review reports are published as letters to editor in subsequent issues. We also encourage post-publication peer-review over social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. Both these features distinguish EMJ from other journals, and enhance the citability of published material.

    • I have had a close look at this journal but I didn’t find anything about it that met the criteria for classing it as a predatory journal. I do find the name strange — are they trying to use a play on words with the Spanish word magnífico? Let’s observe how this journal progresses.

  97. Deepak says:

    Dear Mr Beall,

    The journal of Biomedical Graphics and Computing ( is published by Sciedu, which you have included in your list of predatory publishers. Yet, it is listed in the NLM catalogue database (

    Do predatory journals make it to the NLM catalogue too?

  98. shiv says:

    is this is predatory journal or not.

    • This journal is published by a company called Earth Journals. I have added this publisher to my list. I recommend that you avoid this journal and find another, better one from a legitimate publisher.

  99. Dear Jeffrey Beall,

    I found the “Scientific Online Publishing” publisher in your list. I could not find a specific post with an analysis of their journals. I am here to report my experience with them as a reviewer.

    Let me first state that the publisher presented a spammy behavior in the past, inviting authors and potential editors via automatically generated emails. That stopped after their launch, as far as I know. Their website has often contained inaccuracies, e.g., the “Archive” page link was called “Achieves”. On the other hand, they have always promptly responded to my suggestions and feedback.

    Encouraged by this, I applied as a reviewer for their “Open Journal of Communications and Software”. They receive many submissions from authors of developing countries. So far, I agreed to review 3 manuscripts submitted there. I suggested rejection for all 3 of them because I found that the articles were mostly plagiarisms. Now, receiving plagiarized articles is an issue, but it does not make a journal/publisher predatory. These articles were never published by the journal.

    While I think that the publisher is inexperienced and lacks professionalism-hopefully because of the lack of experience-I can report that from the point of view of a reviewer there have never been issues with them.

    I hope this helps other people there. However, it would be interesting to read the experience of authors who submitted there.

  100. ajay kumar says:

    thank you Jeffrey Beall Sir. Please also suggest me some respectable journal in field of pesticide toxicity.

  101. ALLI L. A says:

    Dear Jeffrey Beall,
    I will like to know why ScienceDomain publisher is included as a predatory publisher. The publisher has many journals under their publication. Do you mean all their journals are predatory or some. Please kindly explain further.

  102. Roland says:

    Dear Jeffrey,
    Could you explain me what is according to your point of view wrong with Avens Publishers.
    I saw they moved the editorial office from LA to Northborough, NY.

    • I plan to publish a blog post about Avens on Thursday. I think both their Los Angeles and Massachusetts addresses were/are dishonest. The Massachusetts one is a house. This publisher operates out of Hyderabad, India.

  103. Javed Iqbal says:

    I receive a lot of requests from the editors to review a sent to their journal. This list will help the reviewer a lot to avoid providing volunteering review services for such questionable journals. Thanks Jeffrey
    Dr. Javed Iqbal

  104. Sajib says:

    About Scientific Online Journal (SOP), not much experiences were shared by people including authors & reviewers. I wonder if the list shown here on the Predatory Journals is well justified! I Meanwhile, was bit happier when I got an offer yesterday through an email of SOP containg information such as, among others,
    ” As a new Open Access publisher, Scientific Online Journal (SOP), dedicates to providing high quality publishing services for authors. From 01/04/2014 to 30/04/2014, all your submission will be reviewed, formatted, proofread and published without any fees. It’s totally FREE.”
    Truely, there were very few reasons that could make me feel wrong about SOP, yet I did feel and came across this blog ultimately; worthy to be here, aint it?

  105. muafipaciran says:

    Hi Prof…what’s your opinion about “Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management (IJIKM)”.

    In web was written that this journal indexed by
    ‘ Indices and Directories Listing this Journal

    Cabell’s Directory of Publishing Opportunities in Computer Science and Business Info Systems
    Cabell’s Directory of Publishing Opportunities in Educational Technology & Library Science
    Cabell’s Directory of Publishing Opportunities in Management
    Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
    Index of Information System Journals

    Thanks Prof Jeffey….


  106. OMG..they are in plenty…there should be an online screening authority for us to check before submission….will anyone volunterr this please!

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