List of Predatory Publishers 2014

By Jeffrey Beall

Released January 2, 2014

The gold (author pays) open-access model has given rise to a great many new online publishers. Many of these publishers are corrupt and exist only to make money off the author processing charges that are billed to authors upon acceptance of their scientific manuscripts.

There are two lists below. The first includes questionable, scholarly open-access publishers. Each of these publishers has a portfolio that ranges from just a few to hundreds of individual journal titles.

The second list includes individual journals that do not publish under the platform of any publisher — they are essentially standalone, questionable journals.

In both cases, we recommend that researchers, scientists, and academics avoid doing business with these publishers and journals. Scholars should avoid sending article submissions to them, serving on their editorial boards, reviewing papers for them, or advertising in them. Also, tenure and promotion committees should give extra scrutiny to articles published in these journals, for many of them include instances of research misconduct.

There are still many high-quality journals available for scholars to publish in, including many that do not charge author processing fees. An additional option is author self-archiving of article postprints in discipline-specific and institutional repositories.

The author is grateful to the many colleagues who have shared information about potential predatory publishers. Last year’s list included 225 publishers, and this year’s has over 477, evidence of the continued rapid growth in the number of predatory journals and publishers. The table below details the growth of questionable publishers since 2011.


Number of predatory publishers









This list will be updated throughout the year at the blog Scholarly Open Access Please refer to the blog rather than the lists below because the lists below will not be updated.

The criteria for inclusion in the lists can be found here. The author’s email address is:

List 1: Questionable Publishers

  1. Abhinav
  2. A M Publishers
  3. Academe Research Journals
  4. Academia Publishing
  5. Academia Scholarly Journals (ASJ)
  6. Academic and Business Research Institute
  7. Academic and Scientific Publishing
  8. Academic Journals
  9. Academic Journals and Research ACJAR
  10. Academic Journals, Inc.
  11. Academic Journals Online (AJO)
  12. Academic Publications, Ltd.
  13. Academic Research Journals
  14. Academic Research Publishing Agency
  15. Academic Scholars Publishing House
  16. Academic Sciences
  17. Academic Star Publishing Company
  18. Academic World Education & Research Center
  19. AcademicDirect
  20. Academy & Industry Research Collaboration Center (AIRCC)
  21. Academy Journals
  22. Academy of IRMBR International Research in Management and Business Realities
  23. Academy of Knowledge Process
  24. Academy of Science and Engineering (ASE)
  25. Academy of Science and Social Science (ASSS)
  26. Academy Publish
  27. Access International Journals
  28. Ada Lovelace Publications
  29. Advance Research Publications
  30. Advanced Research Journals
  31. Advanced Science and Engineering Technology Institute (ASET)
  32. Advancement and Development in Technology International (Aditi)
  33. AENSI
  34. African Research Review (AFRREV)
  35. AgiAl Publishing House
  36. Aizeon Publishers
  37. Akademik Plus Publication
  38. AkiNik Publications
  39. American Academic & Scholarly Research Center (AASRC)
  40. American Association for Science and Technology (AASCIT)
  41. American Scientific Research Journals
  42. American Society for Science and Engineering
  43. American V-King Scientific Publishing
  44. Annex Publishers
  45. ANSINetwork
  46. Antarctic Journals
  47. Aperito Publications
  48. Apex Journal
  49. Apex Journals
  50. Applied Science Innovations
  51. Archers & Elevators Publishing House
  52. ARPN Journals
  53. Ashdin Publishing
  54. Asian Academic Research Associates
  55. Asian Economic and Social Society (AESS)
  56. Asian Online Journals
  57. Asian Research Consortium
  58. Association of Computer Electronics and Electrical Engineers(ACEEE)
  59. AstonJournals
  60. Atlas Publishing, LP
  61. Austin Publishing Group
  62. Australian International Academic Centre Pty. Ltd.
  63. Avens Publishing Group
  64. Avestia Publishing
  65. Avicena Publisher
  66. Basic Research Journals
  67. Bell Press
  68. Bentham Open
  69. Better Advances Press
  70. Biohelikon
  71. BioInfo Publications
  72. BioIT international Journals 
  73. Biological and Chemical Publishing
  74. BioMedSciDirect Publications
  75. Bioscience Research & Educational Institute [Link dead as of 2012-11-14]
  76. Blue Ocean Research Journals
  77. BluePen Journals
  78. Bonfring
  79. Bowen Publishing
  80. British Association of Academic Research (BAAR)
  81. British Journal
  82. Business Journalz (BJ)
  83. Business Perspectives
  84. Canadian Center of Science and Education
  85. Canadian Research & Development Center of Sciences and Cultures  see CSCanada
  86. Canadian Science and Technology Press Inc.
  87. Cardiology Academic Press
  88. Center for the Development and Dissemination of Knowledge
  89. Center for Enhancing Knowledge (CEK), UK
  90. The Center for Innovations in Business & Management Practice
  91. Central Research Insight
  92. Centre For Info Bio Technology (CIBTech)
  93. Centre for Promoting Ideas
  94. Centre of Excellence for Scientific & Research Journalism (COES&RJ)
  95. Centre of Promoting Research Excellence (CPRE)
  96. Cloud Journals
  97. The Clute Institute
  98. Columbia International Publishing
  99. Comprehensive Research Journals
  100. Computer Science Journals
  101. CONFAB Journals
  102. Congress Press
  103. Contemporary Research Center (CRC), Australia
  104. Cosmic Journals
  105. CREST Journals
  106. Crown Journals
  107. CSCanada
  108. Cyber Journals
  109. Design for Scientific Renaissance
  110. DISA Publication Group (DP Group)
  111. Discovery Publishing Group 
  112. David Publishing
  113. Deccan Pharma Journals
  114. DeNovo Scientific Publishing
  115. Discourse Journals
  116. DRUNPP Sarajevo (Society for Development of Teaching and Business Processes in New Net Environment in B&H)
  117. E-International Journals of Academic & Scientific Research (EIJASR)
  118. E-International Scientific Research Journal Consortium (E-ISRJC)
  119. e-journals
  120. e3Journals
  121. Ebioscholar
  122. eCanadian Journals
  123. Econjournals
  124. Edorium Journals
  125. EDUGAIT Press
  126. EISRJC Journals (E-International Scientific Research Journal Consortium
  127. eLearning Institute
  129. Elewa Bio Sciences
  130. Elite Research Journals
  131. eJournals of Academic Research & Reviews
  132. Electronic Center for International Scientific Information
  133. Elmer Press
  134. Elyns Publishing Group
  135. Engineering and Technology Publishing
  136. Engineering Journals (Engg Journals Publications)
  137. Enliven Archive
  138. Erudite Journals Limited
  139. ESRSA Publication – Engineering and Science Research Support Academy
  140. ETA Maths Journals
  141. Euro Asia Research and Development Association
  142. EuroJournals
  143. European-American Journals
  144. ExcelingTech Publishing Company, Ltd.
  145. Far East Research Centre
  146. Ficus Publishers
  147. Genexcellence Publication (G Publications)
  148. Global Advanced Research Journals
  149. The Global Journals
  150. Global Journals, Inc. (US)
  151. Global Openaccess
  152. Global Research Journals
  153. Global Researchers Journals
  154. Global Research Online
  155. Global Research Publishing (GRP)
  156. Global Scientific, Inc.
  157. Global Technocrats & Intellectual’s Association (GTIA)
  159. GlobalSkope Publishing Society
  160. Green Earth Research Network
  161. Green Global Foundation (GGF)
  162. Greener Journals
  163. Growing Science Publishing Company
  164. Herald International Research Journals
  165. Herbert Open Access Journals
  166. Hikari Ltd.
  167. Horizon Research Publishing
  168. Human and Sciences Publications (HumanPub)
  169. Human Resource Management Academic Research Society (HRMARS)
  170. IBIMA Publishing
  171. IJRCM
  172. iMedPub = Internet Medical Publishing
  173. Impact Journals (Tamil Nadu, India)
  174. Indian Society for Education and Environment (ISEE)
  175. IndianResearchJournals.Com
  176. Indus Foundation for Education, Research & Social Welfare
  177. Infinity Press
  178. Infonomics Society
  179. Inforesights Publishing
  180. Ingenious Enterprises International (INGENIN)
  181. Innovare Academic Sciences
  182. Innovative Space of Scientific Research (ISSR Journals)
  183. INREWI
  184. Insight Knowledge
  185. Institute for Research and Development India (IRD)
  186. Institute of Advanced Scientific Research
  187. Institute of Doctors Engineers and Scientists (IDES)
  188. Institute of Electronic & Information Technology
  189. Institute of Language and Communication Studies
  190. Institute of Research and Journals (IRAJ)
  191. Institute of Research Engineers and Doctors (IRED)
  192. Institute of Strategic and International Studies
  193. InTech Open Access Publisher – Mirror site
  194. Integrated Publishing Association
  195. Integrated Science Publications
  196. Intellect Journals
  197. Intellectual Archive
  198. Intercontinental Electronic Journals
  199. Interdisciplinary Publications
  200. Intermedcentral
  202. International Academic Journals
  203. International Academy of Business & Economics
  204. International Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology(International ASET)
  205. International Academy of Science , Engineering and Technology(IASET)
  206. The International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA)
  207. International Advances for Research
  208. International Association for Engineering & Technology
  209. International Association for Engineering and Management Education (IAEME)
  210. International Association of Computer Science and Information Technology (IACSIT Press)
  211. International Association of Journals & Conferences (IAJC)
  212. International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research(IASIR)
  213. International Association of Technology Education & Industry
  214. International Center for Business Research
  215. International Centre of Culture Inventory
  216. International Conference on Computer Science and Engineering
  217. International Digital Organization for Scientific Information (IDOSI)
  218. International Educative Research Foundation And Publisher
  219. International Foundation for Modern Education and Scientific Research (INFOMESR)
  220. International Foundation for Research and Development
  221. International House for Academic Scientific Research [Link dead as of 2013-01-02]
  222. International Indexed Refereed Research Journal
  223. International Institute for Science, Technology and Education(IISTE)
  224. International Institute of Informatics and Systemics
  225. International Institute of Scientific & Industrial Research
  226. International Invention Journals
  227. International Journal Publishers Group
  228. The International Journal Research Publications
  229. International Journals of Engineering & Sciences
  230. International Journals of Multidisciplinary Research Academy
  231. International Journals of Scientific Knowledge (IJSK)
  232. International Journals of Scientific Research (IJSR)
  233. International Network for Applied Sciences and Technology
  234. International Network for Scientific & Industrial Information
  235. International Network for Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
  236. International Online Knowledge Services Provider (IOKSP)
  237. International Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
  238. International Recognition Multidisciplinary Research Journals, Monthly Publish
  239. International Recognition Research Journals
  240. International Research E-Journals
  241. International Research Journals (Lagos, Nigeria)
  242. International Research Journals (Accra, Ghana)
  243. International Research Organization of Computer Science (IROCS)
  244. International Scholars Journals
  245. International Science Congress Association
  246. International Scientific Academic Corporation
  247. International Scientific Engineering and Research Publications
  248. International Scientific Publications
  249. International Society for Zoological Research (ISZR)
  250. International Society of Universal Research in Sciences (EyeSource)
  251. Internet Medical Publishing
  252. Internet Scientific Publications
  253. Interscience Journals
  254. Interscience Open Access Journals
  255. iProbe Group
  256. (IROSSS) International Research Organization of Sciences and Social Sciences
  257. ISISnet
  258. ISPACS (International Scientific Publications and Consulting Services)
  259. IRED International Journals
  260. Ivy Union Publishing
  261. JET Publishing
  262. Journal Issues
  263. Journal of Comprehensive Research
  264. JournalsBank
  265. JScholar Journals
  266. JSciMed Central
  267. Jyoti Academic Press
  268. Kaleidoscope Journals
  269. KEJA Publications
  270. Key Research Journals (KRJ)
  271. Kindi Publication
  272. Knowledgebase Publishers
  273. KnowledgesPublisher
  274. Knowledgia Scientific (formerly Knowledgia Review)
  275. KY Publications
  276. Leena & Luna International
  277. Lifescience Global
  278. Literati Scientific and Publishers  (Literati Publishers)
  279. Longbridge Publishing Company
  280. Lorem Journals
  281. Macrothink Institute
  282. Meghana Pubilcations 
  283. Management Education & Research Consortium Global (MERC Global)
  284. Management Journals
  285. Marsland Press
  286. Mary and Sam Research Academia
  287. Maryland Institute of Research
  288. Maxwell Scientific Organization
  289. MASAUM Network
  290. Medical Science Journals [Link dead as of 2012-11-14]
  291. Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research (MCSER)
  292. Medwell Journals
  293. Mehta Press
  294. Merit Research Journals
  295. MNK Publication
  296. Modern Scientific Press
  297. Moksha Publishing House
  298. Muhammadon Centre for Research and Development (MCRD)
  299. Mustang Journals
  300. Narain Publishers Pvt. Ltd (NPPL)
  301. National Social Science Association (NSSA)
  302. Natural Sciences Publishing Corporation
  303. Nauk Publication
  304. Net Journals
  305. New Ground Research Journals
  306. New World Sciences Academy
  307. Nexus Academic Publishers (NAP)
  308. NobleResearch Publisher
  309. Noto-are
  310. Novus Scientia Journals
  311. North Atlantic University Union
  312. Nuclei Online
  313. OA Publishing London
  314. Oceanic Journals
  315. OMICS Publishing Group
  316. OneCentral Press
  317. Online Journals Management System (OJMS)
  318. Online Research Journals
  319. Open Access Science Research Publisher (OASRP)
  320. OpenAccessPub
  321. Open Research and Science Library (ORSlib)
  322. Open Research Network
  323. Open Research Society
  324. Open Science
  325. ORIC Publications 
  326. Ozean Publications
  327. Pacesetter Online Publishers
  328. Pak Publishing Group
  329. PBS Journals
  330. Peak Journals
  331. Pelagia Research Library
  332. Pharma Intelligence
  333. Pharma Professional Services
  334. Pharmaceutical Research Foundation
  335. Pharmacognosy Network Worldwide
  336. PharmaInfo
  337. PharmaInterScience Publishers
  338. Photon Foundation
  339. Pinnacle Journal Publication
  340. Praise Worthy Prize
  341. Prime Journals
  342. Priyanka Research Journal Publication
  343. Progressive Science Publications
  344. Prudence Journals
  345. Purple Journals [Link dead as of 2013-10-19]
  346. Quazzy Journals
  347. R & S Publications [Link dead as of 2013-07-04]
  348. Recent Science
  349. RedFame Publishing
  350. Research and Reviews (An International Journals)
  351. Research Online Publishing (RonPub)
  352. Research Publish Journals
  353. Research Publisher
  354. Research WebPub
  355. RG Education Society (RG Journals of Scientific Research)
  356. Rising Vision (RV)
  357. Ross Science Publishers
  358. RS Publication
  359. Sacha International Academic Journals
  360. Sai Om Publications
  361. SAMANM Group of Research Publications (SGRP)
  362. SAVAP International
  363. Savvy Science Publisher
  364. Scholar Journals [Link dead as of 2013-04-20]
  365. Scholar People
  366. Scholar Science Journals
  367. Scholarlink Resource Centre Limited
  368. Scholarly and Academic Research Journals (SARJ)
  369. Scholarly Journals
  370. Scholars Research Library
  371. Scholars Academic and Scientific Publishers (SAS Publishers)
  373. Scholink
  374. Sci Edit Publications
  375. SciDoc Publishers
  376. Sciedu Press
  377. Science & Knowledge Publishing Corporation Limited
  378. Science Academy Publisher
  379. Science Alert
  380. Science and Education Centre of North America
  381. Science and Education Publishing
  382. Science and Engineering Publishing Company
  383. The Science and Information Organization (SAI)
  384. Science and Technology Publishing
  385. Science Education Foundation
  386. Science Instinct Publications
  387. Science Journal Publication (SJP)
  388. Science Park Journals
  389. Science Publications
  390. Science Publishing Group
  391. Science Publishing Corporation
  392. Science Record Journals
  393. Science Target
  394. Science Web Publishing
  395. ScienceDomain International
  396. ScienceHuβ
  397. Scienpress Ltd.
  398. Scientific & Academic Publishing
  399. Scientific and Academic Publication
  400. Scientific Advances Publishers
  401. Scientific Journals
  402. Scientific Journals International
  403. Scientific Online Publishing
  404. Scientific Perspectives Publishing (Scipers)
  405. Scientific Research Publishing (SCIRP)
  406. Scientific Viewers
  407. Scigmoid
  408. Sciknow
  409. SciTechnol
  410. ScottishGroup Education and Testing Services
  411. Scribes Guild
  412. Segment Journals
  413. SETScholars
  414. Seventh Sense Research Group Journals
  415. Signpost e Journals
  416. Silicon Valley Publishers
  417. SPIRI The Global Research
  418. SJournals
  419. Sky Journals
  420. SmartPub (International Academy of Energy, Minerals and Materials)
  421. Society for Science and Nature
  422. Society of Business Research
  423. Society of Engineering Science and Technology (SEST India)
  424. Sphinx Knowledge House
  425. Spring Journals
  426. South Asian Academic Research Journals
  427. Southern Cross Publishing Group
  428. The Standard International Journals
  429. Standard Research Journals
  430. STM Journals
  431. Stringer Open
  432. Suryansh Publications
  433. Swiss Journals
  434. Symbiosis (Symbiosis Online Publishing)
  435. Synergy Publishers
  436. T&S Journal PUblications
  437. Technical Journals Online
  438. Technopark Publications
  439. Textroad Journals
  440. Thavan E ACT International Journals
  441. TI Journals
  442. Time Journals
  443. Tomas Publishing
  444. Topclass Global Journals
  445. Trade Science, Inc
  446. Trans Stellar (Transstellar)
  447. Transaction Series on Engineering Sciences and Technologies
  448. Transnational Research Journals (formerly Universal Research Journals)
  449. TSPublications [Link dead as of 2013-08-23]
  450. U.S. Science Press
  451. Unique Research Journals
  452. Universal Association of Computer and Electronics Engineers(UACEE)
  453. Universal Association of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineers(UAMAE)
  454. Universal Research Publications
  455. Valleys International
  456. VBRI Press
  457. Whites Science Journals
  458. Victorquest Publications
  459. Watch Plus
  460. We-Together to Save Yourself Society
  461. Wilolud Journals
  462. Wireilla Scientific Publications
  463. World Academic Journal of Business & Applied Sciences (WAJBAS Publishing) [Publisher]
  464. World Academic Publishing
  465. World Academic Union
  466. World Academy of Research and Publication
  467. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET)
  468. World Business Institute Also here:
  469. World Journal of Publisher (WJP)
  470. World Open Access Journals
  471. World Scholars
  472. World Science Publisher
  473. World Science Research Journals (WSR Journals)
  474. World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS)
  475. World Standard Organization
  476. Wudpecker Research Journals
  477. Wyno Academic Journals

List 2: Questionable Standalone Journals

This year’s list contains 303 titles; last year’s had 126.

  1. Academic Exchange Quarterly
  2. Academicus International Scientific Journal
  3. Academy of Contemporary Research Journal (AOCRJ)
  4. Acta  de Gerencia Ciencia (CAGENA)
  5. Advances in Forestry Letter
  6. Al Ameen Journal of Medical Sciences (AJMS)
  7. American Journal of Advanced Drug Delivery
  8. American Journal of Advances in Medical Science (ARNACA)
  9. American Journal of Engineering Research
  10. American Journal of Pharmacy and Health Research (AJPHR)
  11. American Journal of PharmTech Research (AJPTR)
  12. American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics
  13. American Journal of Social issues and Humanities 
  14. American Research Journal
  15. Anglisticum: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
  16. Archives Des Sciences Journal
  17. Archives of Pharmacy Practice
  18. ARNACA American Journal of Advances in Medical Science
  19. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
  20. Asian Journal of Health and Medical Sciences
  21. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences
  22. Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences (AJBMS)
  23. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences
  24. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Life Science
  25. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care (AJPRHC)
  26. Australasian Journal of Herpetology
  27. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
  28. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research (AJBMR)
  29. Ayupharm: International Journal of Ayurveda and Allied Sciences
  30. The Bioscan
  31. Bioresearch Bulletin
  32. Bioscience Discovery
  33. Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia (BBRA)
  34. British Biomedical Bulletin
  35. British Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences
  36. British Journal of Science
  37. Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences & Applications
  38. Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research
  39. Bulletin of Society for Mathematical Services and Standards
  40. Calodema
  41. Canadian Chemical Transactions
  42. Case Studies Journals
  43. Chemical Science Transactions
  44. Computer Science Chronicle
  45. Computer Science Journal
  46. The Criterion: An International Journal in English
  47. Current Biotica
  48. Current Discovery
  49. Current Trends in Technology and Sciences (CTTS)
  50. Direct Research Journals
  51. E-Library Science Research Journal
  52. ExcelingTech Publishing Company, Ltd.
  53. Elixir International Journal (formerly Elixir Online  Journal)
  54. FOREX Technical Journal Library
  55. Frontiers in Aerospace Engineering
  56. Galaxy: International Multidisciplinary Research Journal
  57. Global Journal of Management Science and Technology
  58. Global Journal of Medicine and Public Health
  59. Golden Research Thoughts
  60. Indian Journal of Applied-Basic Medical Sciences
  61. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research (IJPBR)
  62. Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki
  63. Indian Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biotechnology (IJRPB)
  64. Indian Journal of Scientific Research (IJSR)
  65. Indian Streams Research Journal
  66. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
  67. Indo-Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  68. Innovations in Pharmaceuticals and Pharmacotherapy (IPP)
  69. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business
  70. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business (IDJRB)
  71. International Ayurvedic Medical Journal (IAMJ)
  72. The International Asian Research Journal (TIARJ)
  73. International Design Journal
  74. The International Interdisciplinary Journal of Education (IIJE)
  75. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Applications
  76. International Journal of Advanced Research
  77. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering (IJARCCE)
  78. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering (IJARCSEE)
  79. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering (IJARCSSE)
  80. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science & Technology (IJARCST)
  81. International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering (IJAREEIE)
  82. International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Research (IJATER)
  83. International Journal of Advancements in Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering
  84. International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology(IJOART)
  85. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology(IJAET)
  86. International Journal of Advances in Power Systems (IJAPS)
  87. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences (IJACS)
  88. International Journal of Agricultural Management & Development
  89. International Journal of Agronomy & Plant Production
  90. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology (IJABPT)
  91. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature
  92. International Journal of Applied Research & Studies (iJARS)
  93. International Journal of Applied Research & Studies (iJARS)
  94. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology(IJASBT)
  95. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Mechatronics
  96. International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research
  97. International Journal of Bio (IJOBIO)
  98. International Journal of Biomedical Science
  99. International Journal of Business and Commerce
  100. International Journal of Bussiness and Management Invention
  101. International Journal of Business and Social Research
  102. International Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences(IJCPS)
  103. International Journal of Communication Networks and Information Security (IJCNIS)
  104. International Journal of Computational Engineering Research
  105. International Journal of Computer & Electronics Research (IJCER)
  106. International Journal of Computer and Information Technology(IJCIT)
  107. International Journal of Computer Applications
  108. International Journal of Computer Application and Engineering Technology (IJCAET)
  109. International Journal of Computer Applications in Engineering Sciences (IJCAES)
  110. International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics
  111. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
  112. International Journal of Computer Science and Network (IJCSN)
  113. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security(IJCSNS)
  114. International Journal of Computer Science Engineering (IJCSE)
  115. International Journal of Computer Science Issues
  116. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences
  117. International Journal of Current Research
  118. International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review(IJCRAR)
  119. International Journal of Current Research and Review
  120. International Journal of Current Science
  121. International Journal of Development and Sustainability (IJDS)
  122. International Journal of Development Research
  123. International Journal of Drug Development and Research (IJDDR)
  124. International Journal of E-Computer Science Evolution
  125. International Journal of Economics and Research
  126. The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment
  127. International Journal of Electrochemical Science
  128. International Journal of Electronics and Computer Research (IJECR)
  129. International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer Engineering
  130. International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer Technology (IJECCT)
  131. International Journal of Emerging Sciences (IJES)
  132. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
  133. International Journal of Energy & Technology
  134. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology(IJEAT)
  135. International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
  136. International Journal of Engineering and Computer Science (IJECS)
  137. International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology(IJEIT)
  138. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research(IJEMR)
  139. The IJES: The International Journal of Engineering and Science
  140. International Journal of Engineering and Science Invention (IJESI)
  141. International Journal of Engineering Inventions
  142. International Journal of Engineering Research
  143. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications
  144. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development(IJERD)
  145. International Journal of Engineering Research and Science & Technology (IJERST)
  146. International Journal of Engineering Science & Advanced Technology
  147. International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT)
  148. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology
  149. International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology (IJESRT)
  150. International Journal of English and Education
  151. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies (IJ-ELTS)
  152. International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences
  153. International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Sciences
  154. International Journal of Governance
  155. International Journal of Health Research
  156. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research
  157. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI)
  158. International Journal of Humanities, Engineering and Pharmaceutical Sciences
  159. International Journal of Information and Communication Research
  160. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Research
  161. International Journal of Information Technology & Business Management
  162. International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science (IJITCS)
  163. International Journal of Innovative Ideas
  164. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development
  165. International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies
  166. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE)
  167. International Journal of Inventions in Pharmaceutical Sciences(IJIPS)
  168. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World
  169. International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Computing (IJLREC)
  170. International Journal of Life science and Pharma Research
  171. International Journal of Life Sciences Biotechnology and Pharma Research (IJLBPR)
  172. The International Journal of Management
  173. International Journal of Management and Business Studies (IJMBS)
  174. International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences (IJMESS)
  175. International Journal of Management Research and Business Strategy (IJMRBS)
  176. International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research (IJMSBR)
  177. International Journal of Mathematical Research & Science
  178. International Journal of Mathematics and Soft Computing (IJMSC)
  179. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health (IJMSPH)
  180. International Journal of Medical Sciences and Health Care (IJMSHC)
  181. International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences(IJMRHS)
  182. International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research
  183. International Journal of Medicine and Biosciences
  184. International Journal of Medicobiologial Research
  185. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)
  186. International Journal of Novel Drug  Delivery Technology
  187. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences (IJPBS)
  188. International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Research Science (IJPRS Journal)
  189. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research
  190. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phytopharmacological Research (eIJPPR)
  191. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development(IJPRD)
  192. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention (IJPSI)
  193. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research
  194. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research(IJPSR)
  195. International Journal of Pharmacy
  196. International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (IJPT)
  197. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
  198. International Journal of Power Electronics Engineering
  199. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research
  200. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE)
  201. International Journal of Recent Trends in Electrical & Electronics Engineering (IJRTE)
  202. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Computer Engineering (IJRICE)
  203. International Journal of Research Development (IJORD)
  204. International Journal of Research in Aeronautical and Mechanical Engineering (IJRAME)
  205. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy
  206. International Journal of Research in Computer Science
  207. International Journal of Research in Computer Technology
  208. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJREAT)
  209. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology(IJRET)
  210. International Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Sciences
  211. International Journal of Reviews in Computing
  212. International Journal of Science and Advanced Technology (IJSAT)
  213. International Journal of Science and Technology
  214. International Journal of Science Commerce and Humanities (IJSCH)
  215. International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries
  216. International Journal of Sciences (IJSciences)
  217. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research
  218. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research (IJSER)
  219. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP)
  220. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology
  221. International Journal of Scientific Research and Application (IJSRA Publishing)
  222. International Journal of Scientific Research in Education
  223. The International Journal of Social Sciences (TIJOSS)
  224. International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering
  225. International Journal of Sport Studies (IJSS)
  226. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications (IJTRA)
  227. International Journal of Trends in Economics Management and Technology (IJTEMT)
  228. International Journal of Universal Pharmacy and Bio Sciences(IJUPBS)
  229. International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC)
  230. International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science (IRJES)
  231. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences(IRJABS)
  232. International Research Journal of Applied Finance
  233. International Research Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences (IRJPAS)
  234. International Researchers
  235. Journal der Pharmazie Forschung (RAPSR)
  236. Journal of Advances in Internal Medicine
  237. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons (JPANDS)
  238. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences (Nairobi, Kenya)
  239. Journal of Applied Pharmacy
  240. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
  241. Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy [Link dead as of 2013-05-06]
  242. Journal of Behavioral Sciences in Asia
  243. Journal of Bio Innovation
  244. Journal of Business Management and Applied Economics
  245. Journal of Business Research (İşletme Araştırmaları Dergisi)0
  246. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
  247. Journal of Computing
  248. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine
  249. Journal of Cosmology
  250. Journal of Current Pharma Research
  251. Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences
  252. Journal of ELT and Applied Linguistics (JELTAL)
  253. Journal of Environmental Hydrology
  254. Journal of Global Research in Computer Science (JGRCS)
  255. Journal of International Academic Research for Multidisciplinary(JIARM)
  256. Journal of International Management Studies
  257. Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology
  258. Journal of Medical Research and Practice (JMRP)
  259. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences (JPBMS)
  260. Journal of Science Editing
  261. Journal of Scientific Theory and Methods
  262. Kashmir Economic Review
  263. The Macrotheme Review
  264. Mathematical and Computational Applications (MCA)
  265. Modern Behavioral Science
  266. The Modern Journal of Applied Linguistics (MJAL)
  267. National Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
  268. National Journal of Medical and Dental Research
  269. Oriental Journal of Computer Science and Technology
  270. People’s Journal of Scientific Research
  271. The Pharma Research (Journal)
  272. Pharmacologia
  273. PharmacologyOnline (PhOL)
  274. PHARMANEST: An International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences
  275. Plant Digest
  276. Reef Resources Assessment and Management Technical Paper
  277. Research Directions: International Multidisciplinary Research Journal (Research Directions Journal
  278. Research in Biotechnology
  279. Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering and Science
  280. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences (RJPBCS)
  281. Researchers World – Journal of Arts Science & Commerce
  282. Review of Research
  283. Reviews of Progress
  284. Romanian Biotechnological Letters
  285. Science International
  286. Science Park
  287. Science Research Reporter
  288. Science Reuters
  289. Scientific World
  290. Seventh Sense Research Group Journal
  291. South Asian Journal of Mathematics
  292. Tactful Management Research Journal (TMRJ)
  293. Technics Technologies Education Management
  294. Universal Journal of Applied Computer Science and Technology
  295. Universal Journal of Computer Science and Engineering Technology (UniCSE)
  296. Universal Journal of Pharmacy (UJP Online)
  297. Weekly Science International Research Journal
  298. World Applied Sciences Journal
  299. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (WJPR)
  300. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (WJPPS)
  301. World Journal of Science and Technology (WJST)

1,804 Responses to List of Predatory Publishers 2014

  1. Samir Hachani says:

    Quite an impressive list indeed !!! Jeffrey is too modest: he has almost single handedly uncover these so called publishers. His work is simply great !!!! I find in his list an incommensurable source.Keep up the good work , Jeff and happy new year debunking the falsies !!!!

  2. rbb says:

    Still, most the “big name” or established scientific journals charge a lot. This is due to production by publishers that make a profit (not a bad thing yet fees seem high). These lists are helpful but many review committees etc may not have them handy. To me (a senior scientist), I would assign a value of zero to some of these titles. Thus, if I was reviewing a colleague for promotion, tenure and the like, I would give higher value to established journals and those that appear legit (have anonymous peer review).

  3. John says:

    Thanks for your work.

  4. Dr.Syed Md.Zainul Abedin says:

    Thank you Jeffrey Beall for your continued efforts to establish order in publishing articles.
    Wish you a very Happy New Year 2014!
    I like to publish this post in my website, for further dissemination.I hope you will accord permission to publish.
    I will publish the full article with your name and cite the link in my website.
    Best regards,
    Dr.Syed Md.Zainul Abedin

  5. […] Beall ha pubblicato il nuovo elenco dei predoni dell’Open […]

  6. Ogwo says:

    Thanks for this update. Indeed, from the questionable publisher list, it is clear that this has become a growth industry. What a shame! Is it possible to be further guided with a list of fairly acceptable publishers, in the general area of Business and Management Studies?

  7. Bhaskar says:

    Thanks Jeff. This is the my first visit to your list… Mixed feelings! I have two papers with publishers that feature on this list, viz. Academic Journals and Medwell Journals. Could it be possible (being optimistic) that some of the journals (lets say those that published my papers) by these publishers are not as malafide?

    I published one paper with Medwell Journals in ‘Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances’ that claims to have an IF=0.39. The manuscript underwent rigorous review; I was asked to include more statistical treatment of my data and add more papers to the discussion and even re-format some of the references cited. However, when they published it, they misspelt one of the table legends as ‘Tabel No. 1’.

    The other paper in ‘African Journal of Mirobiology Research’ did not ‘bother’ me much; they simply asked me to explain few points and justify my conclusions in greater detail. This journal also claims to have an IF = 0.7; in fact, they do not claim but I found this IF for the journal on ResearchGate.

    Moreover, both these journals have a very fair metric (6.8 and 7 out of 10, respectively) in the NAAS journal index maintained by National Academy of Agricultural Research, India – the source from where I learnt about these journals and also the major reason why I submitted to them.

    I shall be happy to know your views on these two journals. Thanks again.

    • I have heard that Thomson Reuters, the publisher of Journal Citation Reports, has removed the impact factor for the Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. Also, I do not see the African Journal of Microbiology Research as having an impact factor at all. I looked this up in JCR and present here a selection from their list. The journal would fall here if it were on the list:

      African Journal of Psychiatry
      African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicines
      African Natural History

      I still recommend that researchers not submit any papers to the journals published by Medwell Journals and by Academic Journals. Thanks.

    • Joris says:

      When looking at impact factor, ResearchGate is not a good source. In fact, although I’m on ResearchGate I found already quite some flaws in their system and the information they give.

      If you look at the golden standard we use (i.e. the Web of knowledge), there’s no reference to either journal. The impact factors we take into account here, are those reported by Web of Knowledge. If a journal is not mentioned there, it’s not considered a scientific peer-reviewed journal.

      • Victor says:

        Joris, you are wrong. You are wrong when you say “if a journal is not indexed in Web of Knowledge, it’s not considered a scientific peer-reviewed journal”. I know a handful of quality peer-reviewed journal indexed in PubMed, Scopus, DOAJ, Informit, etc but not in web of knowledge or science.

    • Jannie says:

      I have received an invitation to send articles to the following people:

      David Publishing Company

      The earlier Journal of US-China Education Review, ISSN1548-6613, USA

      Journal of US-China Education Review A, ISSN2161-623X, USA

      Journal of US-China Education Review B, ISSN2161-6248, USA

      Are they ok?!

  8. Corey Allen says:

    Hey Jefferey,

    Thanks for the update. However there are several predators you have missed. SciHub (, they first used an address of Lasani Town, Faisalabad Pakistan but when I questioned them to confirm, they changed their contact details to a PO Box in connecticut. They also have major grammar errors and their website doesn’t work properly.

    Another is AENSI web ( they were first called INSIpub, then they changed to AENSI. They have a series of conferences which if you see are definately not authentic (they dont even have a url).

    We have plenty like eSci Journals Publishing ( From the address you can see this is a scam. It is in a house in a town in Islamabad Pakistan. You can also judge from the quality of the website.

    I also did a bit of a research on Bentham. They are actually based in Pakistan and the person behind it is Atta-ur-Rehman.

    • Hello, thanks for your comment. I do have ScienceHuβ on my list — I listed them under their full name that appears at the top of their website.
      I also have AENSI on my list as well, check here:
      I would love to hear more about your research on Bentham! If you could share your sources with me that would be great. Thanks.

      • Corey Allen says:

        Thanks for your comment. Well I attended one of Bentham’s conferences in Dubai and one of their employee showed me a Pakistani man sitting on the stage and told me that’s the person who runs Bentham.

      • Hello Mr Beall,

        I have once publish with Bentham, not the open access option. They did real peer review and ask for a lot of changes. Then my article got accepted, and typed set, and I received the galley proof.

        After I sent back the galley, they asked me whether or not I would like my article to become highlighted article, etc. Here I attach their offer:

        1. RECENT HIGHLIGHTED ARTICLES: Authors may opt to publicize their abstracts under the relevant research subject at a cost of US$ 600 for 3 months and US$ 800 for 6 months.

        2. IMAGE ON THE FRONT COVER OF THE JOURNAL: Charges for having an image from your article on the front cover of the journal are US$ 800.

        3. BANNER AD ADVERTISING – For your article or a job vacancy: Institutions/universities can publish online banner advertisements at US$ 800 at the journal home page for 2 months. (please contact for details).

        4. COMPANY/SPONSORSHIP LOGO: Company logos can be published on the journal cover page in sponsored issues at a cost of US$ 800.

        5. E-MAIL ADVERTISING: If you want to promote your article through a certain number of emails sent to a targeted audience (for rates please contact

        From their offer I know that highlighted articles are highlighted because the author pays, not due to merit.

        I refused their offer, and you know what? 3 days after my refuse, they sent me a letter, that my article contained many grammatical errors, and should be handled by an editing house, and they suggested one, and for that, I have to pay the editing house.

        I refused their offer, and told them that the 1st reviewer said that the language was OK, and I said them, that if language revision is needed, I prefer to use our own editing house; so I scrutinized the article and found some minor errors and corrected the errors, and sent them back the article, and finally it was published.

        My conclusion: Bentham tries to make authors pay, though we did not opt for open access.

      • Thank you — this is helpful information.

      • I published a ‘Hot Topic’ (9 participating authors) with Bentham Science, in the journal Current Aging Science, here:

        The topics included contributions from respected academics, and the peer review was rigorous. The publication process was as I would expect, rigorous and detailed, including plagiarism checks and other appropriate details. The papers have been published in PubMed first as ePub ahead of print, and then as normal printed publications. There was an option for the author paying for the paper to remain online as an open access but I did not take it.

        Following this, I accepted their invitation to join the editorial board. Although I receive general emails from time to time about publishing open access papers on payment of author’s fees, I personally don’t see this as a problem. I have no other association with them and don’t know the owner of the publication.

      • Very good.
        Bentham Science, a subscription publisher, is not on my list.
        Bentham Open, an open-access publisher, is.

  9. Can anyone provide information as to what it is about “Austin Publishing Group” that got them on the list…. PLEASE.

    • This publisher is deceptive — it claims that it’s from Australia when it’s really based in India.

      • Justin Keogh says:

        So do you still include Austin Publishing as predatory? I just got an invitation to join the editorial board of one of its journals which is now listed as being in the USA.

        Austin Publishing Group
        3126 Riverside Station BLVD
        Secaucus, New Jersey 07094
        Tel: 201-655-7075


      • Yes, this publisher is still on my list. I think it is based in India, despite its claiming to be based in Australia previously. I find that its website is currently down, a good thing.

      • william says:

        now Austin publishing group says that they registered in usa . We got and invoice stating to pay and before i got Australian account number and now usa account number . I couldn’t estimate this scientific damage done by these publishers.

      • Tony says:

        They now have a USA address which is actually an apartment building in New Jersey part of a larger apartment complex called xchange. The address is also used for the “SM Group” which is a supposed science ebook publisher.

    • SJ says:

      Here is where Austin Pub Group comes from

      Domain ID: D169444531-LROR
      Creation Date: 2013-08-16T02:15:36Z
      Updated Date: 2014-08-13T10:50:38Z
      Registry Expiry Date: 2015-08-16T02:15:36Z
      Sponsoring Registrar:Crazy Domains FZ-LLC (R1789-LROR)

      Registrant ID:R-013734258-SN
      Registrant Name: Ashok Kumar Kata
      Registrant Organization:Exports And Imports
      Registrant Street: 1-63/1 Oppicherla Post, Guntur District
      Registrant City:Guntur
      Registrant State/Province:andhra pradesh
      Registrant Postal Code:522614
      Registrant Country:IN
      Registrant Phone:+91.8790410011
      Registrant Phone Ext:
      Registrant Fax:
      Registrant Fax Ext:

      so it seems to be based in India

      • Manousos Kambouris says:

        they are crooks. they sent invitation to publish, when we asked on the fee they said 900$ but due to invitation-entitled discount just 125$ and after 6 months, without ever sending galley proofs, they contacted the only author of the group based on another city and ask for 620$ (that is 5 times more, without keeping their part of the bargain, which is a publication entailing the proper steps (galley proofing included).

      • Nauman says:

        I submitted my article to Austin publishing group and after seeing your blog i wanted to paste their two recent emails. First is as below:-
        As you know Journal of Dental Applications is an Open Access journal and does not receive any funding from subscription and solely depends on contributors like you.

        You are requested to pay $1520 for article publication. Your great contribution is required to keep up the journal.

        We sincerely request you to process the above amount as soon as possible to perform Open Access Publications in organized way.

        It would be appreciated if you could pay the publication fee as soon as possible.

        We are looking forward have more submissions from you.


        Vincent D

        3126 Riverside Station Blvd

        Secaucus, New Jersey 07094, USA

        Second is as below:-
        Greetings from Austin Publishing Group!
        Thank you for contacting us. Don’t worry about the publication fee, we are providing you 50% discount on publication fee; so we request you to pay 770$ since that fee is required to maintain this platform in organized way and this organization doesn’t receive any funding from funding sources. Please try to understand the situation and support us financially.

        Your great support will be highly appreciated and look forward for the same.

        Vincent D
        3126 Riverside Station Blvd
        Secaucus, New Jersey 07094, USA
        Tel: 201-655-7075

        What do you say??

      • I continue to recommend that researchers not submit manuscripts to the journals of Austin Publishing Group.

  10. Andreas says:

    Thanks Jeffery for this update. You are surely doing a formidable job that needs to be encouraged.
    My questions:
    – With about 477 predatory publishers and 303 predatory journals, are we not heading for a situation where all open access journals will be predatory?
    It will thus become very daunting for researchers to find an appropriate journal with acceptable ethical standards to publish their findings, if clear guidelines are not set up and published to guide for the choice of a good journal or publisher.
    – Some publishers are cited as predatory, and not all of the journals they publish are predatory. How then can a choice be made from a journal not cited as predatory but published by a publisher cited as predatory?
    – In an earlier post here the ‘African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicines’ was cited as predatory whereas it is indexed in PUMED which is the most reliable international platform of medical publications. How can this paradox be explained?
    Happy New Year, and continue in the same direction with the same strength in 2014.

    Yaounde- Cameroon

  11. Nana Yaw says:

    It is quite interesting to note this list again. Well, I have mixed feelings about such list. First, this list does what western social science does so well: creation of binary opposites in which the category that is associated with established western institutions is deemed correct/better/standard.

    Second, OA journals (I mean those that do not charge authors processing fee and still make their articles publicly available) particularly from non-western societies seem to challenge the old opinion that English, French, and German and their institutions are the epistemic centres for knowledge production and production (this is probably unknown to many young western scholars and the older ones who have taken everything they find in academia for granted as what ought to be or ordained by providence) . Indeed, they have challenged the old view that scientific knowledge production is lower in non-western societies relative to western societies.

    Unknown to many western scholars, these journals are springing up in reaction to the view that to be recognized one must publish in western journals. What you don’t realize is that many of them have national reputation and are a reflection of their national self-determination.

    Again, the use of language as one of the criteria of assessment worries me. If you are a native speaker of English , pray that what happened to Latin does not happen to English and Chinese takes over as the next so-called international language. My English may not be as good as that of a native speaker and I won’t apologize for it.

    Now I see why Russia and other BRICS countries have their own national citation index; I believe many more separate national citation indices will appear just for simple reason of national self-determination. And one thing that is also certain is that Jeff’s list will get longer and longer each year because people are just tired of this academic imperialism and want academic independence. Note that many of these journals are part of the calls to indigenize the social sciences and as much as the indigenization fire burns, Jeff you will have a great deal to do.

    Indeed, things fall apart (Chinua Achibe); the centre can no longer hold and must give way for multi-epistemic centres of knowledge production and dissemination.

    So do you think any western journal will publish such style of writing? We know to be published in “Jeff’s acceptable journals”, one must be a “good boy” and not challenge anything but “bad boys” must also publish so the OA journals proliferation. Posterity in their own nations will judge the worth of their work.They represent part of a long struggle for mental emancipation from the shackles of the colonial mentality of reduced self-esteem and dependency.

    Well, these are my thoughts. You will want to read Claude Ake’s “Social Science Imperialism” and Kwesi Yankah’s “Globalization and the African Scholar”.

    • It is very easy to see that you missed the entire point of the blog page and its purpose. This has nothing whatsoever to do with academic or social imperialism. It’s about ethics. If you have to lie and be deceptive in order to gain approval and acceptance in the international community when it comes to “scholarly” activity your sense of “self-determination” seriously needs help. That’s a rather twisted view perspective on becoming self-actualized and/or self-determined.

      • Lincoln says:

        I agree with Caddisfly2002 I have today seen the “peer review report” of one of the paper submitted to one of the publishing group in list, the revew is a mak 1-5 given for attributes, and all is “4” and telling “now pay $xyz and get your paper published in 5 days!
        My point is there is no issue of imperialism, its between fraud and real.

  12. caddisfly2002 says:

    It greatly appears that you missed the entire point of why this list was created to begin with. This has nothing whatsoever to do with academic imperialism or implying that one society is better than another. It’s about integrity and ethics. If you have to lie and be deceptive in order to gain acceptance and approval for what you deem “national self-determination”, you have some serious issues and you need to get help.

    With regard to the use of language as being part of the criteria, whatever happen to being responsible and accountable for one’s own work? If a journal or publisher is wanting to be recognized and taken seriously, don’t you think that producing work that is grammatically correct and void of spelling errors is a necessity regardless of the language that it is publishing in? That’s what editors are for!!!!! If you don’t have an adequate command of the language in which you are publishing the document then hire an editor who is fluent in the language. It’s NOT that difficult.

    If those on the list want to be recognized, approved, and legitimized, then they need to stop doing those things that are considered unethical. They should meet the same requirements as any other organization that seeks to thrive in the field of publishing… i.e., conduct themselves in an ethical and professional manner. As far as authors go, if your work is so substandard that you cannot publish in a legitimate journal with a a legitimate publisher and you are not willing to polish your work and do what it takes to make it better, then perhaps you should not be publishing at all. There is plenty of garbage out there for the world to read. We don’t need anyone adding more garbage to the already existing pile.

    Lastly, keep in mind that when we use the word “academic” we are implying quality and a high standard. Unfortunately, there are way too many people that simply don’t have the ability and are not willing to do what is necessary to foot the bill.

    • Nana Yaw says:

      Interestingly surprising! Well, I do agree with you about ethics and quality. I do agree that it is annoying to read a paper full of mistakes and false claims. But who defines the standard of ethical behaviour and quality? I was questioning who determines the criteria and based on whose standards. You may not appreciate whatever I said because probably you take most things you came to meet on this earth as given.

      By my submission, I wanted to draw attention to the fact that there are varied reasons for the proliferation of OA journals: some want to cheat academics who want promotion and others do set up these journals because they want a forum where their academics can engage in discussion about issues of national interest. And these issues are less likely to be of adequate universal interest (where universal is what is of interest to home-country academics of many of the established journals). So Jeff’s list must distinguish between pay-and-publish-subscribe journals from publish-and-subscribe journals. Again, a team should work on such lists as peer review that those journals are accused of not carrying out equally exists; that said, there is the risk that the list may be scientific and “useless”. This is because it doesn’t follow the research protocols that can give users assurance of accuracy and lack of bias. If we claim that We love what Jeff is doing, let’s encourage him to share the methodology used (not a list of criteria) and data by way of publication.

      Postmodernist philosophy and critical realism question views that empirical world is the real world. Underneath the empirical world is the real world and that needs deconstruction. No wonder critical realists describe the positivist reality as naive realism. In short, there is always a motive underneath the surface that we must search for. Questions like: Who funds this research and why? Is the principal researcher on the board any of the established journals? Are there any conflicts of interest that we must know? Has there been any incident at his university that drove him to do this and full disclosure thereof? Accurate answers will increase confidence in the list.

      Though I believe that such a list properly produced by all stakeholders is needed (and he has shown the way), I will not be a good boy and accept it just because it has been produced.

      • Nana Yaw says:

        “Other examples of hidden institutional ethnocentrism can be found in the channels of academic communication, such as journals. Howitt and Owusu- Bempah (1994) report that they ‘have been told by white journal editors that the language we use in academic papers is unacceptable and has to be toned- down or removed as a condition of acceptance for publication’ (p. 136). Asking for a change in tone, streamlining arguments and other revisions can be used as an instrument to censor papers that use a different voice. This is not censorship in a crude way but it expresses the ‘repressive tolerance’ of Western academia, according to which papers are accepted as long as they are palatable to the mainstream.” Teo and Febbraro (2003)

  13. Eko Suyono says:

    Very important information that We should know..Please always up date the list… tks bell…

  14. Jaap Timmer says:

    Reblogged this on Culture Matters and commented:
    Here’s an interesting list of allegedly predatory journals, but even more interesting is the troll of comments below the list. While I tend to agree with those who talk in favour of open-access forums, I would, when searching for a journal to publish my article, check this list and of course do some careful research on the journals that attract my attention.

  15. Erick says:

    Have you heard anything about a publisher called “Research Trends.” I got an invitation to submit an article for what I think is an annual “Current Trends in Neurology.” I had an unpublished review article (from my diss. that my advisor let languish) and I figured I’d see if I could dust it off and get it published. After several rounds of emails, I found their manuscript submission to be strange (“send an email to email id:“), and I could not locate academic credentials of anyone listed on their editorial board. I DID see a few publications from the journal in PubMed, though. Very strange experience and I ended up not submitting the article to them, but probably wasted a lot of time.

    • Yes, but I don’t think this is an open-access publisher, so I haven’t fully analyzed it. I do regularly receive emails asking about this publisher, an indication that some at least find it questionable.

  16. […] The 2014 list (actually two lists) were posted by Jeffery Beall (U. of Colorado-Denver) on his Scholarly Open Access blog late last week. There are more than 477 publishers listed. The 2013 list contained 225. […]

  17. Atef Alsarayreh says:

    Thanks a lot for all you efforts Jeffery Beall.

  18. Z says:

    Hi Jeffery,
    Can you please tell me about the status of “International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Engineering (IJMSE)”.

    • Well, I think this is a very low quality journal. I easily found plagiarism in it. I recommend against submitting papers to this journals.

      • Athanase says:

        Respected Beall

        I read your information very interesting. Could you please tell me about the status of
        – Journal of Renewable Agriculture
        – Asian Academic Research Journal of Multidisciplinary
        – Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies
        – International Research Journal of Horticulture

        Some of them seem to be located in USA but it seems it is not true.

        Thanks a lot

      • I refer you to the lists associated with my website.

      • Athanase says:

        Dear Beall,

        Thanks a lot for your quick answer. The journals were not included on the list,but the publishers were included on the list. By this I am confused how the publisher is on the list but not the journals.

        Best regards

      • bill says:

        >I am confused how the publisher is on the list but not the journals

        Probably because the enormous number of journals appearing each year makes it more practical to give priority to listing publishers.

  19. Shahzad Khan says:

    Jeffrey i have two queries about your work. first all open access journals are nor predators, that why i will suggest to do include some paid access journal for example Actual problem of Economics Ukraine based journal has recently removed from JCR. actually one of my paper accepted there but fortunate i came to know on time that it has been removed from JCR.
    Secondly there are good journals in open access for example economic insight trends and challenges, Management and Marketing for knowledge society in which i have published my articles they do give a fair double review to articles.

    well i will suggest that not only criticize open access problems are also exit in paid journals.

    Please note that i am university lecturer and does not belong to any journal or publisher.

    • There are many people who are already describing the problems associated with subscription journals such as Actual Problem of Economics. My voice is not needed there. I choose to limit my research and work and commentary in the area of predatory open-access scholarly publishers and standalone journals. My goal is to help researchers avoid being scammed by these corrupt publishers.

      • Dear Mr Beall,
        If you only limit on predatory open access, why did you include Trade Science as predatory publisher? Journals from trade science (Biotechnology: an Indian Journal [already vol 7 last year, and already included in scopus], and Biochemistry: an Indian Journal) are not open access. Moreover, they do not charge authors.

        I have no association with Trade Science or India, You can check it in the editorial board members.

      • This is a fair question. Thanks for asking it. Trade Science used to be at least partly OA. You are correct that the publisher appears to have switched its model to subscription / toll-access. It also appears that they have launched a bunch of journals, many of which are mere templates, devoid of any scholarly content. I think an exception is warranted here because I would still like to warn researchers about this publisher. I don’t think it’s a good place to submit good research, and including them in the list will help convey that warning.

  20. Rubin Cohen says:

    I follow our website with interest. I would like to share with you the email I had just received. It all looks very legitimate with the publisher’s address being in San Diego. They are “ardent to promote erudite, pragmatic, and contemporaneous research…”

    Dear Dr XXXXX
    Greetings for the day!

    In view of your scientific reputation and trustworthiness in your field, we would like to invite you to submit a short communication/perspective/Research/Review on your research area for publication in our upcoming issue.

    Clinical Research in Pulmonology is ardent to promote erudite, pragmatic, and contemporaneous research in the fields of Pulmonology & respiration through open Access platform. This open access journal facilitates rapid publication with unlimited dissemination of knowledge to readers.

    If you are interested, kindly let us know your possible date of submission.

    Anticipating your kind positive response


    Mark Victor
    Editorial Office-
    Clinical Research in Pulmonology
    JSciMed Central
    2952 Market Street, Suite 140
    San Diego, California 92102, USA
    Tel: 1-302-360-8046
    Fax: 1-302-360-8174
    Toll free number: 1-800-762-9856
    For more info, please visit our website:

    • Pretty much everything about their email is bogus. The names are fake, and the location is fake. They use a mail forwarding service as their “headquarters.” Their so-called headquarters used to be in Delaware. I strongly recommend against submitting papers to this bogus publisher.

      • Dear Mr. Beall,
        How did you know that an e-mail is bogus, and a name or a location is fake? Also, how did you know that their so-called headquarter is in Delaware, while it is written: 2952 Market Street, Suite 140 San Diego, California 92102, USA?

        Thank you

      • I don’t always know with 100% certainty that a name is fake, but when the spam email contains many grammatical and other errors and is then signed with a name like Tom Brown, then I think it’s fair to say that something is suspicious. Regarding addresses, in this case, this publisher changed its address from that of the incorporation agent it used in Delaware to that of a mail-forwarding service in San Diego. I think the publisher is really based in South Asia and uses American addresses to fool people into thinking it is U.S.-based.

      • Richard says:

        Seems the time is ripe to invent a certification system for reputable publishers. websites have a secure (padlock) verification system, why not publishers?

  21. I have experience as a contributor with two of the organizations that you list as questionable publishers. First, OMICs Group. I attended and presented at one of their conferences and was very pleased at how professional they were despite their small size. My article was not accepted by their peer review committee. Next, Photon Journal for Public Health. Very professional and did everything they said they would do within the timeframe they promised. They put a lot of good peer-reviewed comments into my paper and required that I make the changes. They were very professional. Their website needs work. It is difficult to browse articles. In neither case did I find anything questionable about these organizations at all.

  22. Lynn Pospiech says:

    Do you have any insight on the publisher “European Society for Translational Medicine” and/or their journal “New Horizons in Translational Medicine”?

    The website states that authors can expect a decision or revision request within 2 weeks of manuscript receipt, and also that “After acceptence of manuscript, author will get an invoice for relevant publication/designing charges which should be paid before further processing of the manuscript” but I see no mention of the fees.

    Their so-called Executive and Advisory Board lists look suspicious.

    Thank you for providing this valuable service to the research community!

    • No, I haven’t heard of this journal before, but your excellent observations certainly have raised my eyebrows. I am going to give this journal a full analysis. They require copyright transfer, yet they charge an undisclosed fee. If you want a PDF of an article you have to pay, but they are available for free on the annoying flash viewer. This is highly questionable. Thanks for letting me know about it.

  23. fakhariyan says:

    Thank you Mr. Beall for your helpful list. Have you heard of the journal Frontiers of Language and Teaching? Is this a predatory journal?

    • There seem to be several publications with this title. Do you mean the one that is the conference proceedings for the conference with the same name? It appears to be a subscription journal, so I can’t see it, but based on what I can see it looks legitimate.

  24. Nick H. says:

    Thank you for this list. It will be quite the resource for the near future. I have a quick question for you, what about the Journal of Environmental Hydrology makes it questionable (beyond the obvious problems with the website)? Additionally, the have Roger Peebles listed as in charge of the JEH. I am assuming that is the same as the Roger Peebles that is listed on the email newsletters and this Roger Peebles and this Roger Peebles Just interested in your thoughts on this journal and this individual. Thanks.

    • The journal was added because, at the time of the analysis, the journal required that authors themselves arranged the peer review before submitting the paper to the journal. Additionally, problems were found with duplicate publication and plagiarism. No comment on Dr. Peebles.

      • Nick H. says:

        Thank you for your reply Jeffrey. Good to know that there were problems found of duplication and plagiarism.

  25. […] Segundo alguns pesquisadores, existem hoje mais de quatro mil periódicos predatórios sendo publicados, o que representa, no mínimo, um quarto do número de periódicos de acesso livre. Para publicar seus artigos científicos sem muito esforço, são cobradas taxas que variam entre duzentos a três mil dólares. Em muitos casos, os autores só descobrem o “valor da fatura” após a publicação do artigo científico. Uma lista atualizada de títulos de periódicos predatórios é mantida por Jeffrey Beall, bibliotecário da Universidade do Colorado, no blog Scholarly Open Access. […]

  26. Harry Tsapkota says:

    Hi Jeff.
    Could you tell me about International Journal of Forestry Research of Hindawi publication? is it legit???? or predatory???

    • I generally analyze at the publisher level rather than the individual journal level. Hindawi is not on my list of questionable publishers. I do receive complaints about Hindawi, however. They use spam a lot, most of their over 500 journals lack editors in chief, and it seems to be a publisher that focuses just on the authors’ needs and not so much the readers’.

      • RMS says:

        I had a publication with Hindawi recently published. I felt the peer-review and copy-editing were very professional, so I am satisfied. I am not sure if all journals they publish are the same or not, in my case it was The Scientific World Journal, their largest publication I believe.

      • RMS says:

        I just want to add a few more comments on my experience publishing with Hindawi’s The Scientific World Journal (TSWJ). As I said I am satisfied with the way the paper was handled, especially the speed from submission to publication and the quality of the copy-editing. I do realize, however, that the peer-review was a bit “light”. I’ll explain why I feel that way.

        My co-authored paper was reporting what can be considered “negative” results, meaning we carried out a series of experiments to test a hypothesis, which turned out not to work. We did this as it had been reported in literature (in a reputable journal), and disseminated in the media, that a new additive would, to put it plainly, make wonders for the reaction I was studying. When we realized that it didn’t work, immediately I started to wonder what journal may be interested in publishing such result.

        I assessed that the more established journal, where I’ve published more “interesting” results, may not be thrilled with this paper. I also imagined that some peer-reviewers very knowledgeable in the area might give us some trouble with our findings; for example, perhaps disagreeing with our methodology, or giving some other reason why they thought we did something wrong (which we are quite confident we didn’t).

        Then I received an email from Hindawi, which many people find annoying, but in this case seemed quite inviting. They were offering free publication in TSWJ for all submissions received during one month related to chemical engineering. I looked up the journal and was pleased to see it is indexed in Scopus and has an ISI IF. I also saw that it has a style comparable with PLOS ONE, in that it will publish a wide range of subjects, but even more general. I also liked that subject areas were categorized in the journal, so that all chemical engineering papers, for example, are in their own subdivision. And finally, I was intrigued by the peer-review model, which is somewhat open (the reviewers names appear on the final paper) and is mainly dependent on reviews by editorial board members. This meant it was unlikely anyone with a vested interest in mineral carbonation (possibly to up the point of a conflict of interest), that could give unnecessary grief over the paper, would review it.

        So within the month we finalized the paper and submitted two days before the end of the “promotion”. Just over one month later, I got the email with the reviewers’ comments and the editorial decision. It was accepted. So what about the reviewer’s comments? Well, they had a few minor comments (very few in fact, but relevant comments). But the interesting thing was that the decision email said that, and I quote, “changes that you may want to make in order to improve your manuscript before final publication”. The key word is “may”. This apparently means we could have ignored the comments and made no changes. We made the changes, because we saw value, and because we wanted to make sure my published paper was a peer-reviewed version and not just the submitted manuscript. Not that a submitted manuscript cannot be accepted directly without changes, I actually had two such papers previously published in more established reputable journals. But for this specific paper and journal, I felt we had to do some kind of revision, basically to give reassurance over the negative findings we were reporting.

        So there you go, my plan to get the negative results published worked, just as I imagined. The conclusion? It appears, from this experience, that TSWJ does not perform as thorough reviewing as some other journals, and does not have a mechanism in place (e.g. a knowledgeable editor-in-chief) to ensure that papers get revised according to all the reviewer’s comments. Of course, this is only one paper’s experience. If I submit to them again in the future, I might get another experience. So that’s my two cents on this subject.

      • EGPF says:

        I have published two papers at Psyche, from Hindawi. I will tell of my experience here.
        Psyche was a very reputable journal in past decades, especially among researchers working with social insects. Hindawi decided to revive this journal, and spread a good marketing about it, while managing to amass a good list of reputed editors from the field. Also they were good enough to include in their website .pdfs to all papers by Psyche from the old days, all available for free. I thus decided to publish two relevant papers in it as it looked like a very promising growing, open-acces journal. I was quite satisfied with the quality of peer-review, and I guess I got reviews from experienced peers in my field. I must mention, however, that they asked me for a list of prospective reviewers, and I do not like this practice by principle.
        Upon publication problems started to show: there is no editor in chief or handling editor, thus formatting and proofs are made by a series of secretaries with weird names, each at a time, and they kept asking unusual demands on file formats and file names, while including many typos and mistakes in the proofs. This problem hit me when publishing both papers. There was no responsible editor to complain about this, or asking for guidance, only several non-scientist secretaries.
        Eventually I managed to publish each paper free of errors, and final quality was good, easy to find, and open-access.
        However I must say that my papers did not make the expected impact, suggesting that readers do not really read them or take them seriously enough. I am not sure about the reasons, but maybe because it is an open-access publisher.
        After many years since its re-inauguration, Psyche still does not have an impact factor. In the endpoint, I feel publishing at Psyche from Hindawi was not a good choice.

      • Psychology researcher says:

        I came to this website to see about this journal as I am currently reading a paper from the Scientific World Journal (Hindawi). The study seems good, the results legitimate but I was concerned how well it has been edited/reviewed as the standard of English is awful. The authors obviously do not have English as a first language, but it is unusual to see things published that are this poorly written and hard to follow.

  27. Muhammad says: This is new online publisher, within few months it is completed one year journal publication. It is also showing wrong indexation.

  28. Mohammad Shameem Al Mamun says:

    Dear Mr. Beall,

    Thanks for your outstanding works. I am a tea scientist and want to publish a research article in Journal of Tea Science Research Could you please inform me about the journal?

    • That journal is published by Sophia Publishing Group Inc., and this publisher is NOT on my list. I think this journal is okay, and it’s nice to see a specialized journal like this. I think it’s better to have a journal like this one than to have a journal title such as the Journal of Plant Science Research.

      • Lindy Orthia says:

        This journal has now disappeared from the internet and my brief look at the publisher website did not inspire confidence, since none of the ‘staff’ are listed by name, only by position. Perhaps it is worth another look for your list.

        Incidentally some articles from this journal are retrievable in Google Scholar, adding weight to your argument about its flaws as an academic search engine. I’ll be adding your argument to my annual lecture to undergraduates on the perils of relying on Google Scholar as anything other than a last resort.

      • Jared Okungu says:

        So where is the list of all genuine journals?

  29. Les Biesecker says:

    Hi all
    As others have stated, kudos to Mr. Beall, his work is exemplary!

    I have a suggestion for you all that I have taken up in support of Mr. Beall. Every time I receive one of the endless spam solicitations for one of the companies listed by Mr. Beall, if they claim to have editors with academic affiliations, I look up the editor’s emails and send them the following message and copy the company:

    Dear Doctors/Professors,
    I am writing to you regarding your affiliation with XXXX publications. As you may know, this publisher has been designated as a predatory publisher by Mr. Beall, of the University of Colorado.
    There was also a recent exposé of these publishers in Science magazine, demonstrating that many of them will publish worthless manuscripts.
    I urge you to consider whether your association with this publisher reflects well on your excellent scientific reputations.
    Les Biesecker

    P.S. to XXXXX publications – each time you send me this spam, I will write to the editors.

    I get responses from maybe 1 of 5 of the named scientists – most often to decry that they have no affiliation with the publisher and that they will work to get their name removed. I also copy the company and have received one reply from a publisher claiming that their listing by Mr. Beall is undeserved and that they are appealing. If we make our colleagues aware that we look poorly on such affiliations, this may discourage bogus claims of legitimacy.

  30. You refer initially to the “gold (author pays) open-access model”, but gold open access simply means publishing in open access journals, which may or may not involve author payment. I am just interested to know whether all the journals and publishers listed here require payment (the obvious incentive for a predator) or whether there are predators that seek something other than money. (I can imagine that newer efforts may not charge for early articles just to gain some content, to attempt to demonstrate credibility.)

    • John, my definition of gold open-access is different. I recognize the gold OA model (free to readers, authors pay an article processing charge) and the platinum OA model (free to readers and free to authors). I generally try to limit my list to gold OA publishers and journals, following the definition I give here. I agree with your last statement, that new gold OA publishers frequently waive fees just to get some content, and unfortunately, it’s usually pretty bad.

  31. Binder Jose says:

    Is “International Journal of Electrochemical Science” really a predatory publication? The ISI impact factor was 3.7 in 2011…

    • The current impact factors are the 2012 ones. While that journal may have had an impact factor in 2011, ISI journal citation reports does not list an impact factor for it now. Here are the closest entries, where it would fall:


      It is not uncommon for predatory publishers/journals to lie about having an impact factor. They do this to attract more article submissions.

  32. Binder Jose says:

    Thank you for your response. This journal has lost its impact factor or it was suspended only in 2012?

    • It may be for just this year, or it may be forever. That will be up to Thomson Reuters, the company that publishes the impact factors. The 2013 impact factor data won’t be published until June, so we won’t know until then.

  33. BASUDEB DALAL says:

    Dear Dr, Beall,

    I have published some papers in Photon Foundation Journals. During sendind, I was not judicious about organization. However, out of Curiosity, I sent a letter to Photon Foundation this morning which is as Follows:

    To the Editor in Chief (s),
    (1) The Journal of Toxicology and Health
    (2) The Journal of Public Health
    (3 ) International Journal of Biochemistry
    (4) The Journal of Applied Biochemistry

    Photon Foundation

    Dear Sir,

    It is to draw your kind attention that myself has published papers in the above named journals.

    However, it is not clear to me that what is Impact Index ? Even it is not included in standard directory like Scopus, Pubmed etc. Please clarify the following no.

    What is the relation of Impact Index and Impact factor?

    Why the jounals have no ISSN number ?

    When the letters from various responsible persons used to come to me , it looks like foreigner Name, but the bank account no (0355104000045119) of IDBI of photon where I used to send the processing fees is at Rajasthan, India. It is not clear to me What is the address from where the journals are published? Please clarify it to remove my anxiety.

    During processing, it has been repeatedly observed that same format in same colouration has been used, even without need, during editing for all the aforesaid journals. Moreover, every respected journals clearly mentions the name and address of the Editor in chief whereas none of the above mentioned journals have this thing.

    All this aforesaid matters created hazy impression about Photon foundation Journals. Hope you will kindly clarify the points which I mentioned in my letter.

    An earliest response will help me to send articles faster.

    With regards

    B. Dalal

    Consequently, in reply I receieved a letter from them which is as follows:
    Dear Dr. Basudeb Dalal

    Welcome at Photon.
    Scopus / Pubmed and Photon both are different organizations. We do not govern over Scopus / Pubmed. Published articles are internationally indexed at Photon with a facility to download freely across the world. The Journal of Toxicology and Health: Impact Index: 4.72. The Journal of Public Health: Impact Index: 3.93. International Journal of Biochemistry: Impact Index: 4.52. The Journal of Applied Biochemistry: Impact Index: 2.12. Photon is adapted to next generation Impact Index system, which maintains far superior quality than Impact Factor at global scale. Impact Factor is biased with journal’s self citation tendencies. Various prestigious journals with impact factor are illegally involved in favoring even poor research articles, if they cite their journal. Members of societies / academy find blind / favored acceptance for their research article publications on their own Journals. Impact Factor has commercial business interests in favor of it’s financial investors, instead of academicians. There is no place for such activities in high standards of academics. Quantitatively Impact Index is equal to Impact Factor. ISJN: International Standard Journal Number. ISJN is next generation Universal ID. The Journal of Toxicology and Health, The Journal of Public Health, International Journal of Biochemistry, and The Journal of Applied Biochemistry are published by Photon Foundation. Photon ensures completely blinded review and keeps the process unbiased at every level.

    With Best Wishes

    Editorial Office

    Now tell me

    (1)Quantitatively Impact Index is equal to Impact Factor.

    (2) ISJN: International Standard Journal Number. ISJN is next generation Universal ID. The Journal of Toxicology and Health, The Journal of Public Health, International Journal of Biochemistry, and The Journal of Applied Biochemistry are published by Photon Foundation.

    Statement (1) & (2) are true or false.

    With regards

    B. Dalal


    • False. This publisher invents its own metrics to trick authors. I recommend against submitting papers to David Publishing.

      • Craig McBride says:

        I agree. I checked out David Publishing, and they do in fact charge large fees for papers to be published. All of their journals (and they have a LOT) are scams.

  34. Imran Omer says:

    What about international journal of multidisciplinary and current research ijmcr

  35. Iftikhar Ahmed Khan says:

    What to do, if you have already published some research in the listed journals. Can we publish this some where else?

  36. pongthep says:

    Please check Advanced Materials Research too.

  37. Arben says:

    Dear Mr. Jeffrey Beall,
    Can you tell me about the journal “”, it looks like it has an impact factor and GIF and ICV, and it is free of charge. Please let me know what you think about his journal. Thank very much for your support to the research community.

    • Arben: That journal is published by Innovative Space of Scientific Research (ISSR Journals). This publisher is on my list. I consider the GIF and the ICV to be meaningless metrics. Questionable publishers often waive article processing charges when they first get started, in order to get articles into their empty journals. I recommend that you not submit any papers to this publisher’s journals. Good luck. –Jeffrey

  38. damodar paudel says:

    Dear Mr.Jeffrey Beal,
    could you please tell me about the Global journal of health science?

  39. Arben says:

    Dear Mr. Beall,

    What about this journal “International Journal of Business and Management Science, ISSN: 1985-692X”. Is it ok to publish? What is your first impression. Thank you ?

  40. aiman says:

    Dear Mr. Beall,
    I suggest you to investigate “Indian journal of clinical practice” ISSN 0971-0876 and include it in your list.

  41. […] Corporation. Ne connaissant pas ce journal, ni cet éditeur, je me suis rendu sur la liste de Jeffrey Beall recensant les « éditeurs prédateurs » afin de vérifier qu’Hindawi ne faisait pas partie de cette liste. Apparemment non, mais voici ce […]

  42. Siti Azizah says:

    Dear Mr. Beall, can you tell me about the status of premier Publishers? I want to submit my article to, however I need the status of the journal before I do that. Thanks a lot. You have aver good job!

  43. Mehmet Orgun says:

    Dear Dr. Beall, Do you know much about this OA publisher New World Publishing LLC ( ? Its journals have no editorial board nor content. BTW, thank you for the terrific job you have done here!

  44. Binder Jose says:

    Dear Mr. Beall,
    Can you tell me about “SPIE” publications?

    Thank you very much.


  45. Khalid says:

    Please, dear Beall, What is the status of IISTE?

    • This publisher is on my list of questionable publishers. I recommend that you not submit papers to any of its journals. Instead, I recommend that you find a higher-quality publisher.

  46. Tyler says:

    Reblogged this on Sonic Geography and commented:
    Happy Monday, everyone. I will have the Knoxville Country megapost up here sometime within the next few days, but I just wanted to share this item that I received in a note from a colleague this morning. Everybody has heard of predatory lending, but did you know about predatory publishing? Take a look.

  47. Jan Szczepanski says:

    What about Progressive Academic Publishing, UK in Birmingham?


  48. Jeff says:

    This is an outstanding, helpful list, but I noticed very few Psychology-related journals (even in sub-discplines like Development or Biopsychology or connected fields like Neuroscience). Is this to suggest most open-access journals in the field are acceptable? If no, is there another area where I can find info on open-access Psych-related journals? Thanks for your time and efforts with this ever growing problem

    • Most of the predatory publishers go where the money is, and that is in fields where research is typically funded by grants, like the biomedical sciences. Still, if you look closely at the predatory publishers’ journal portfolios, you will see a good number of psychology journals. I don’t think it’s safe to conclude that most OA psychology journals are acceptable. You have to analyze each one — such a generalization can be dangerous.

      • Jeff says:

        Thanks for the reply. I’ll look deeper into the actual publishers to get a more comprehensive list (to be honest, I only looked at the publisher names and the names of the journal list, I did not look further into the publishers). I agree the assumption that OA journals are acceptable is dangerous. Thank you for spear-heading the process of ensuring the integrity of research in all disciplines!

  49. M. M. Khan says:

    Dear Jeffery Beall! What about this Journal:

    • M. M. Khan says:

      Dear Beall! Waiting for your opinion about the mention Journal. It will help us a lot in possible avoid of this journal.

  50. John says:

    Dear Bill, thank you for your good work. Is the journal of chemical biological and physical sciences predatory?Its website is here:

  51. Steve Kezzler says:

    This kind of reminds me of the Human Fund… “money for people.”

  52. Cleve Smith says:

    How about MDPI journals?

    • Excellent question; I can tell you that I am re-evaluating this publisher at this time for possible inclusion in my list. Please stand by.

    • Cleve Smith says:

      MDPI journal ask for 500CHF publication fee. They also help people to correct English language and then ask for additional 250 CHF. They have scores of journals. It seems to be very profitable.

    • Lachezar Filchev says:

      I submit to MDPI two years ago – and since then I told myself I will not repeat it again. Everything was OK – the journal was brand new, without an IF and of course with the appealing waiver of publicaton fees for the first year of the existence of the journal. My editor was a Chinese (I will not reveal his name unless someone want this), who was very kind and welcoming at the point of acceptance of our paper. We had our paper formally accepted but after we refused to pay 200 Euros for proofread to a company of their choice we were rejected straight away. Of course our work got published where it deserved but ever since I ask myself what is the OpenAccess all about? If it is only about making profits from authors, then it has to be made clear so anyone who want to get into the trap – to get with the conscious that this his/her choice.

      P.S. The issue with MDPI is the poisonous mix of quality papers published by them, good looking and sophisticated publication system, and of course luring offers such as publication fee waivers etc., which at the end are just not true.

    • rizal says:

      This is my catch on MDPI.
      Because there were so many cluster in MDPI, it is difficult to generalize.
      Some clusters have good quality. They were indexed by good databases (PubMed, Scopus, Thompson,).
      Some clusters are not even reach 1000 or more publications (still new and maybe the reviewers expertise too).

  53. Dr. Abdul Md Mazid says:

    I would also like to know about your opinion on MDPI. recently i have reviewed an article for MDPI as they requested me and i found it’s a standard paper. This paper has been published by MDPI on open access mode.That journal, its mentioned, has Impact Factor nearly 2.

    i am thinking to send some paper/s as well to MDPI.

    I would appreciate any comments on MDPI before i upload the paper.

    I have briefly explored website of ORIC publisher, They are proposing, i guess, a few journals including one in Science and Engineering. Scope of this journal includes many fields of engineering. their journals do not show yet ISSN. But my initial impression is that they are well organised and methodical.

    • I am increasingly receiving complaints and inquiries about MDPI. Many complain about the low quality of some of the published papers, while others point out the increasing attention being paid to the firm’s owner, who has become involved in international politics. I recommend that you find a better publisher than MDPI, and this shouldn’t be too hard.

      Regarding ORIC Publications, I recommend that you not submit any papers to this publisher; it is included on my list of questionable publishers.

  54. Benn says:

    Most Western Journals are not accessible to African and Asians who need this information for their development. I have published articles in ‘good’ journals but that information is not freely available to Africans and Asians who generally cannot afford subscription fees. I have also published in one OA journal in the list provided but I was surprised that a local investor had actually accessed the OA information and used it. He did trace me to ask follow up questions about the technology we proposed. Publishing an open access paper in a ‘good journal is also very expensive. The question I will like to ask is how can the knowledge generated be freely accessible by all for human development? If Beall can answer that question, then the list of OA ‘predatory’ journals will start to shrink. If not, then let him be prepared to hit the 1000 mark his list by Jan. 2015. However, if these OA journals come together to improve on the quality of their publishing, then it will be time to start tolling the knell for those so called ‘good’ journals that lock up information for a price. I will rather pay a moderate cost for my paper to be freely available than lock up information in a system that cannot be accessible to the community that I come from.
    Thank you.

    • You don’t know what you’re talking about. The Research4Life program has distributed many subscription journals to academics in developing countries for a long time. OA journals are not the only means for the wide dissemination of science and technology. Science will never be cost-free.

      On the contrary, unaffordable APCs are denying many developing country scholars the opportunity to publish their research findings.

      More information is not better information. The predatory publishers don’t care about quality; that’s the whole point.

    • koi smith says:

      Benn, OA journals are a way for the publishers to scam the authors, and the authors to scam their respective institutions and funding sources. They are also a sinkhole for naive and inexperienced researchers, and the best way to insure the invisibility of your work.

  55. John says:

    Dear Beall what about this journal?

    • What is your opinion of the journal? Have you had any experience with it? Are you associated with it? Have you published any papers in it? If so, please let me know what you experience was like.

  56. John says:

    No, I am not associated with it but I have published a paper in it. In afct I am a young junior researcher , it was my first paper and don’t know if it is a good or not. I would like to know if I shall not be ashamed of listing that paper on my publication list in next years.I payed publication fees but it seems that it is a good journal.What is your opinion.Thank you.

  57. Kelechi says:

    I would like to know if “International Journal of Structural and Civil Engineering Research”, “International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering” and “IJET Publications” should be added to your list.

    Thank you.

  58. Matteo says:

    Dear Prof. Beall, I noticed that this list is not updated, some publishers are added or removed from your updated list..I think you must update this list or remove it from this page because this may cause confusion with the updated list (sorry for my english)

  59. Cleve says:

    Hello Jeffrey,

    You are doing an excellent expertised job for all.
    I would like to know your evaluation on the following journal(s):

    American International Journal of Social Science
    ISSN 2325-4149(Print), ISSN 2325-4165(Online)

    Is “social science” in the journal name itself a proper term? Their website also lists 5 other journals, two of which have the same term.

    Thank you!

    • This journal is published by a bogus publisher called the

        Center for Promoting Ideas

      . This publisher is on my list, and I recommend that you not publish in any of its journals. The title sounds okay, but I think most legitimate journals would say “social sciences.”

  60. Jan Szczepanski says:


    Unsure about ISR Journals and publications


  61. Jan Szczepanski says:

    Is this one a good laugh also?


  62. Owho Joni says:


  63. Suhas says:

    I wish to know about the predatory status publisher EM international Pune India?

  64. Suhas says:

    Please find this link for perusal and information.

  65. Suhas says:

    Are you only adding open access journals in your list? This journal is not open access but charge for paper publication.

  66. RF says:

    Hi Jeff,

    This is a comprehensive list. Impressive!
    How about The Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation? Is this a predatory journal or one of the good ones?
    It says in their website ( that it is “one of 5 academic journals published by Academic Conferences Limited.” It is also listed as one of the e-journals published by ACPI (
    I just wanted to know a little more information since they contacted me to be a peer reviewer.

    Many thanks,

  67. Farzana Nipu says:

    please give us the list for trusted one…..

  68. Dear Jeffrey Beall,
    I am Dumcho Wangdi, a teacher from Bhutan, South Asia. I hope you must have heard of my country. I wish you happy new year on behalf of my country mates.
    I have heard of those predator publishers but failed to find the exact list of it. You have done an extraordinary job.
    So, can I have your permission to duplicate it into my blog at so that I and my friends who visit my blog can use it for the reference.
    Remember the source and your phenomenal work will be always acknowledged.
    Please kindly allow me to let thousands of my innocent immature friends realize of your phenomenal work.
    Thank you

  69. Arben says:

    Dear Dr. Beall

    Are all the journals listed under DOAJ ( LEGIT ?!

    Can I find a journal on this directory and publish my work.

    Thank you for your opinion.

    • There is some overlap between my list and DOAJ, so, no, not all of the journals listed in DOAJ are legitimate in my opinion. DOAJ has tightened its criteria over the past year, so it’s not as bad as it once was.

      Yes, you can find a journal on this directory and publish your work, but do so at your own risk. Check to make sure the journal is not also on my list, and talk to senior colleagues in your field about the quality of the journal you want to publish in. Also, read the journal and become familiar with the quality of the articles in it before submitting.

  70. Dear Jeffrey Beall,

    Thankyou for your wonderful work in naming and shaming these destructive publishers and journals.

    Just wondering, since you mentioned them separately in another post but I’m not seeing them on this list – are you going to include the Global Science and Technology Forum (GSTF) based in Singapore? I was recently deluded into submitting a paper to one of their journals and asked for $300 to publish (previously not mentioned in any of their conditions), and their submission process was a complete mess. I’m happy to provide email proof if it would help others to steer clear and not be burned like I was.


  71. Bustomi Rosadi says:

    I mean, Journal of Agriculture Engineering and Biotechnology (JAEB)? Is this a predatory journal?

  72. paul says:

    Thank you for information but what is your criteria for terming some of the publishers as questionable? I have read some of their works and they seem ok. Is it on a case by case or is it a blanket condemnation that they are questionable?

  73. Arun says:

    Dear Beall

    Thank you for the list.

    Is the “Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems” published by “American Scientific Publishers” legit? By going through the website,I did not think so. However, it is not included in your list, but is part of DOAJ website, so I am not sure if this is predatory journal. I would like to know your opinion.

    Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems
    ISSN: 2326-3008 (Print); EISSN: 2326-3024 (Online)


    • Arun: I limit my analyses to open-access journals and publishers. This publisher is not an open-access publisher, so I have not analyzed it and cannot comment on its quality.

      Still, I did look at the journal you mentioned. When I clicked on it I saw this: “Buy & download fulltext article: Price: $113.00 plus tax.” That is very expensive for a single article! If you publish your article in this journal, you risk having very few people read it.

      • nar says:

        Mr Beal,

        I just saw that you’ve now included AMerican Scientific Publisher” into the publisher list. When did you put it on the list? Because when i submit my article into Advanced Science Letter on April 2015,which is belong this pulisher, I have checked it through “your list”, there is no American Scientific Publisher at all, and neither the journal in it. So please tell me the date when you put it on the list, cause I have to prove to my institution that this is not me who mistakenly wrong. But its just your update that make it now happened.

  74. Onah says:

    Please, why is ScienceDomain International included in your list of predator publishers? We sent our work to one of their journals (British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research) and it took about 5 months of rigorous reviews and corrections before the paper was accepted. I am confused here.

    • sylvanus says:

      I do not understand how sciencedomain could be included in this list. this is because it me many months of correction and sending and resending before my paper was accepted. there must be something else being pursued. it difficult for me to accept.

  75. gorka says:

    Dear Bell,

    Would you please confirm if the international journal of marine sciences (sophia group) is a predatory journal or not?

    They invite me as a reviewer and I see they charge 1200 per publication although they say to me that since I am reviewing an article I can publish free of charge within 6 months.


    • That journal’s publisher, BioPublisher, is not on my list.

      • naelil says:

        Dear Mr. Bell and Mr. Gorka

        I think here Mr. Gorka and my professor face of same case. My professor has submitted the article to International Journal of Marine Science, published by Sophia Publishing Group. Now the article has published in International Journal of Marine Science (IJMS). But suddenly we got an information from our university that IJMS is kind of predatory journal. But they do not have any enough reasons to explain of that matter. Now, i search on many information according predatory journal, and found this website. Would you mind to reconfirm of IJMS whether is it predatory journal or not? In your opinon, is it recommended journal to submit or not?
        According on your database, do International Journal of Marine Science has impact factor? And if the journal is not on your list so that it can be accepted unpredatory journal?
        I am very sorry for the questions and thank you very much for your response Mr. Bell and nice sharing MR. Gorka.

      • Can you send me a link to the journal, please? It appears there may be more than one journal with this title.

      • naelil says:

        Dear Mr. Beall
        Thanks for this information. Actually Mr. Gorka and my professor have almost same question about International Journal of Marine Science (IJMS). My prof’s manuscript has been published since the begining of April. Since it has been published then my university told us that IJMS is kind of predatory journal, even do not have enough reasons of this matter.
        So that i’ m join to this website. Would you mind to answer my questions, Mr. beall. Is this journal has good reputation? And does it has an impact factor? According your opinion, is that true IJMS as unpredatory journal and why? how IJMS doing until now espicially for publication? And am I right to submitted manuscript,in IJMS.?
        Thank you very much, Mr. Beall for your informarion. It will be very helpful to us.

      • This journal is published by BioPublisher. This publisher is not on my list of questionable publishers. I cannot answer all your questions. You need to make your own decisions about where you submit your work. If your university is not happy with the journal or publisher, please talk to your university about that.

      • naelil says:

        Thank you very much Mr. Beal for the answer and advice.

      • oceandaniel says:

        This is Daniel Smith, the editor of International Journal of Marine Science (IJMS). I was somewhat excited to see our journal was mentioned here. I knew many publishers are corrupt and exist only to make money, their ridiculousness makes me proud, but they also make a hard time for the newly OA journals, especially when the journal doesn’t have any background. Nevertheless, we march unswervingly, no matter how long the way will be.

      • Mr. Smith, on the journal’s website, you are listed as the “Publishing Manager,” not the editor. Can you explain this discrepancy?

      • oceandaniel says:

        I was the editor, for three years, and now I am planning and shaping of the journal’s publishing programme, its aims and scope, etc.. So I always think I am the editor.

  76. tauseef ahmad says:
    can you please let me , know about this journal , and about he impact factor of this journal , is this impact factor fake.

    • This journal is on my list. It does not have a legitimate impact factor.
      I recommend that you not submit any papers to this bogus journal.

      • tauseef ahmad says:

        sir , i had already submitted the paper , but i was not knowing the fact, Don’t we have any laws so that these can be banned, for cheating scholars, academicians and researchers. what you suggest me further to do?

      • The laws vary by country, but in most cases there are no laws against predatory publishing.

  77. Jan Szczepanski says:

    I would appreciate your opinion about the publisher
    Society for Science and Education


    • I consider this a questionable publisher. It is on my list, and I recommend against submitting papers to this publisher’s journals and against agreeing to serve on its editorial boards.

  78. Dr. Olokooba Saka says:

    Dear Beall, I really commend your work. When i saw the 2014 list i was very sad but at the same time i was happy. The reason for my sadness was that, i have published some of my very good papers in some of those journals which amounted to wastage. However, my happiness now is that i am better informed of the publishing outlets i should use. This is a learning experience, though, a bitter one. Please keep the good work going.

  79. ify says:

    I want to commend you. You are really doing a great work, keep it up. My questions are (1) is it possible for journals or publishers on your list to mend their ways by improving on quality and correct their mistakes and thus be removed from predatory list. (2) can you please give us list of good journals in biomedical science
    From. Ify

  80. bsulis says:

    Reblogged this on Benguet State University Library & Information Services and commented:
    A Warning to our researchers who want to upload!

  81. Siti Azizah says:

    Please be careful of JAERD! I did a mistake by sending my article there!!! I sent my article there in 2011 and I paid $300. Then they ask me to pay again $600 today.. This is a kind of […] act!

  82. Just Ishaq says:

    Dear Prof. Beall,

    What a great job you did! I would like also to ask your opinion regarding this publisher: Global Science Research Journal (

    I have no connection at all with the publisher. I received several emails from it, invite me to submit manuscript. But, their emails came to spam folder.

    Thank you very much.

    • I’ve added Global Science Research Journals to my list.
      This is a new brand created by International Scholars Journals. They’ve copied a lot of content from their journals into the journals in the new brand.
      The new brand has launched with around 130 journals, and I recommend against submitting to all of them.

  83. Imran Omer says:

    Can you please confirm is it predatory journal or not

    • Oh no, another journal using a blog platform as its publishing platform.
      This seems mostly to be a popular journal rather than a scholarly journal. It also appears that they sell print subscriptions, and that these contain more content than the online version. I don’t want to add this journal to my list at this time. It’s really more of a magazine.

  84. Kevin J. Black, M.D. says:

    Any comments about BaiShiDeng Publishing Group? E.g.

  85. Nilo Bugtai says:

    hi Jeff,

    Please tell me about this journal/publisher Thomson Scientific ISI Web of Knowledge. They told me that if my paper will be accepted I will pay USD 1200 for the publication.

    Thank you very much.

    – Nilo

  86. Hello Jeffrey In your 2014 list I dont see any listing for Scholars’ a trademark of AV Akademikerverlag GmbH& Co. KG. Does this mean then that they are not predatory?
    With grateful thanks
    Melissa Bortz

  87. shingirai sikomwe says:

    thank you Jeffrey , kindly assist me why IISTE is regarded as dubious. I had three papers accepted, they claim to have good impact factor and referenced in a number of publishers

  88. popof says:

    hi, what do you know about future medicine publishing ( do you think they’re predatory too?

  89. Hi Jeff,

    I work in the subscriptions team here at Future Medicine Ltd. I am interested to know why you would recommend caution?

    As you correctly pointed out, we are not an open-access publisher and all our publications are peer-reviewed.

    If you are interested to know more about our peer-review process, you can find information on our website
    Alternatively I would be happy to put you (or anyone with concerns) in touch with one of our commissioning editors who would be able to explain our editorial policy in more detail.

    Annabelle Fairest

  90. Aamer Hanif says:

    Kindly comment if the 4 journals given in following link are recommended for publishing papers. Thank you.
    The publisher is: The International Journal Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore

  91. muafi says:

    Hi Prof. Jeff,
    My paper was receive in ICIMER 2014 (International Conference on Information Management and Education Research) in Shanghai Cina, april 17-18 2014.
    All accepted paper will be published by Atlantis Press and be online available in full text via the publication platform, then be submited for indexed to Thomson ISI, WOS, Scopus.
    But I was doubt to follow in this conference because I am not sure if the conference indexed by Thomson ISI, WOS and Scopus. Are you recommended me to follow? I will be waiting for your information. Thank you very much.

    • Sorry — I limit my analyses to scholarly journals. I don’t know whether this conference is legitimate or not. I recommend caution, especially if you are unfamiliar with the conference.

  92. Zohrain says:

    Hi! I found the information here very useful. I was browsing and found this predatory journal:

    Im guessing they changed the website address as one of the similar name ‘valleys international’ is already included in your questionable publishers list..

    Thanks for all the good work!

  93. Corrado Giuliani says:

    I was wondering why DOAJ keeps in the lis the Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering which is a SCIRP Journal that i guess to understand that is a predatory company.
    Any explanation would be appreciated.
    Thanks for your work, you make my group avoid publishing on the Open Biomedical Engineering Journal by Bentham Science

  94. jane says:

    This is a wonderful page… practically the “don’ts” of where to publish (and I look forward to the “do’s” – which open access journals are trustworthy…!).

    I would like to ask if you know anything about Open Journal of Ophthalmology ( My university has encouraged us to publish in this journal, as they have arranged for a discount on publishing in the next two months. However, I can’t seem to find out anything about it. Is it worthwhile to send articles here, or would you advise caution? I worry about being biased because it seems to be a new journal, but everyone has to start somewhere, after all. thank you very much/

  95. jane says:

    Whoops! sorry about that, am new to this. Just found out – The journal is produced by one of your questionable publishers… uh oh! A comprehensive list indeed! thank you!

  96. Deepak says:

    Dear Mr Beall,

    Is this predatory too. No personal experience but found a mail from them in my inbox:

    Welcome to El Mednifico Journal!
    El Mednifico Journal ( is an open access, quarterly, peer-reviewed journal that aims to publish scientifically sound research across all fields of medicine and public health. It publishes researches as soon as they are ready, without waiting to be assigned to an issue. These articles are then proofread, copyedited and arranged into four issues per volume and one volume per year.

    The scope of the journal encompasses: Clinical Medicine, Laboratory Medicine, Surgery, Public Health, Dental Surgery, Radiology, Pathology, Pharmacy, Nursing, Biophysics, Biochemistry, Health Policy, Global Health, Medical Education and other allied fields.

    All submissions receive the following benefits:

    Quick and efficient peer-review; rapid publication after acceptance
    Submissions are judged according to the content and methods employed
    All articles are published as open access; no submission or processing fees
    Articles are deposited at various indexing and archiving agencies upon publication
    Wide dissemination to readers and researchers throughout the world
    We have a strict policy against plagiarism. All submissions are screened for plagiarism upon receipt. Any submission found to have plagiarized material will be immediately rejected and the authors will be permanently banned on failure to provide adequate clarification.

    We invite notable scientists and medical professionals for post-publication peer-review and debate on articles published in the current issue. Review reports are published as letters to editor in subsequent issues. We also encourage post-publication peer-review over social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. Both these features distinguish EMJ from other journals, and enhance the citability of published material.

    • I have had a close look at this journal but I didn’t find anything about it that met the criteria for classing it as a predatory journal. I do find the name strange — are they trying to use a play on words with the Spanish word magnífico? Let’s observe how this journal progresses.

  97. Deepak says:

    Dear Mr Beall,

    The journal of Biomedical Graphics and Computing ( is published by Sciedu, which you have included in your list of predatory publishers. Yet, it is listed in the NLM catalogue database (

    Do predatory journals make it to the NLM catalogue too?

  98. shiv says:

    is this is predatory journal or not.

    • This journal is published by a company called Earth Journals. I have added this publisher to my list. I recommend that you avoid this journal and find another, better one from a legitimate publisher.

  99. Dear Jeffrey Beall,

    I found the “Scientific Online Publishing” publisher in your list. I could not find a specific post with an analysis of their journals. I am here to report my experience with them as a reviewer.

    Let me first state that the publisher presented a spammy behavior in the past, inviting authors and potential editors via automatically generated emails. That stopped after their launch, as far as I know. Their website has often contained inaccuracies, e.g., the “Archive” page link was called “Achieves”. On the other hand, they have always promptly responded to my suggestions and feedback.

    Encouraged by this, I applied as a reviewer for their “Open Journal of Communications and Software”. They receive many submissions from authors of developing countries. So far, I agreed to review 3 manuscripts submitted there. I suggested rejection for all 3 of them because I found that the articles were mostly plagiarisms. Now, receiving plagiarized articles is an issue, but it does not make a journal/publisher predatory. These articles were never published by the journal.

    While I think that the publisher is inexperienced and lacks professionalism-hopefully because of the lack of experience-I can report that from the point of view of a reviewer there have never been issues with them.

    I hope this helps other people there. However, it would be interesting to read the experience of authors who submitted there.

    • DR Page says:

      I went through the author process with SOP, and I found them to be very friendly, happy to make corrections when they occur, and found the reviewers I had to be very helpful in improving my manuscript. My work was recently published in “SOP Transactions on Applied Mathematics”.

      From the experience of an author, though paying a fee (in exchange for open access), they are very new, but welcome to input. I didn’t find really anything predatory about them during the process, but I know I did receive the e-mails you were discussing at first (I found them later on when trying to find an appropriate journal, and thought my work would go great in a new journal).

  100. ajay kumar says:

    thank you Jeffrey Beall Sir. Please also suggest me some respectable journal in field of pesticide toxicity.

  101. ALLI L. A says:

    Dear Jeffrey Beall,
    I will like to know why ScienceDomain publisher is included as a predatory publisher. The publisher has many journals under their publication. Do you mean all their journals are predatory or some. Please kindly explain further.

  102. Roland says:

    Dear Jeffrey,
    Could you explain me what is according to your point of view wrong with Avens Publishers.
    I saw they moved the editorial office from LA to Northborough, NY.

    • I plan to publish a blog post about Avens on Thursday. I think both their Los Angeles and Massachusetts addresses were/are dishonest. The Massachusetts one is a house. This publisher operates out of Hyderabad, India.

  103. Javed Iqbal says:

    I receive a lot of requests from the editors to review a sent to their journal. This list will help the reviewer a lot to avoid providing volunteering review services for such questionable journals. Thanks Jeffrey
    Dr. Javed Iqbal

  104. Sajib says:

    About Scientific Online Journal (SOP), not much experiences were shared by people including authors & reviewers. I wonder if the list shown here on the Predatory Journals is well justified! I Meanwhile, was bit happier when I got an offer yesterday through an email of SOP containg information such as, among others,
    ” As a new Open Access publisher, Scientific Online Journal (SOP), dedicates to providing high quality publishing services for authors. From 01/04/2014 to 30/04/2014, all your submission will be reviewed, formatted, proofread and published without any fees. It’s totally FREE.”
    Truely, there were very few reasons that could make me feel wrong about SOP, yet I did feel and came across this blog ultimately; worthy to be here, aint it?

  105. muafipaciran says:

    Hi Prof…what’s your opinion about “Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management (IJIKM)”.

    In web was written that this journal indexed by
    ‘ Indices and Directories Listing this Journal

    Cabell’s Directory of Publishing Opportunities in Computer Science and Business Info Systems
    Cabell’s Directory of Publishing Opportunities in Educational Technology & Library Science
    Cabell’s Directory of Publishing Opportunities in Management
    Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
    Index of Information System Journals

    Thanks Prof Jeffey….


  106. OMG..they are in plenty…there should be an online screening authority for us to check before submission….will anyone volunterr this please!

  107. Dear
    The International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research is free journal i.e. has no any publication charge. Moreover, it has 4.57 impact factor. So why is it consider as predator publisher in the list 2? Could you plz explain?

  108. Max says:

    Jeff, I have come across OMMEGA Publishers
    and was surprised not finding them in your list. Do you think they are kosher?

    • Max, Thanks very much for letting me know about this new publisher — I had not heard of it. I have analyzed it and added it to my list. Thanks again, Jeffrey.

      • Ambika says:

        Hi Friends, They are a fraud company who have been using my Texas address as their business location and doing a fraud business in India. Kindly I’d like to report the same to whoever is interested in them.
        I can personally prove it that it is not legitimate business.

  109. abdou says:

    Dear Pr Jeffrey,
    Thanks a lot for this work,
    I would like to know about the publsher Intechopen, they asked me i wish contribute by a chapter in book. Please advise me.
    Best wihes,

  110. sneha says:

    Dear Mr. Beall,
    I want to know wether the journal “ACADEMIC SCIENCE” is authentic or not!!
    Could you please inform me about the status of this journal?

    • Academic Science appears to be a new publisher — I have not heard of it before. I don’t have time to analyze it now, so I’ve added it to my backlog. The publisher appears to be claiming that its journals have authentic impact factors, which they do not, so I recommend that you find a better publisher than this one. This one looks very suspect.

  111. Mitch Balish says:


    What can you tell me about Jacobs Publishers ( It looks about as shady as you can get, but I don’t see it on your page here. I received this:

    Dear (x),
    Warm greetings from Jacobs Publishers!
    We introduce ourselves as Jacobs Publishers have initiated a Journal Called Clinical Journal of Microbiology and Pathology; Jacobs Publishers is an Open access journal publishes peer-reviewed novel research related to Cancer Science. Our journal focuses on the current research in Pathology, Clinical microbiology, Hematopathology, Transfusion medicine, Molecular Genetics Pathology, Immunopathology, Veterinary Pathology, Virology etc.
    Clinical Journal of Microbiology and Pathology welcomes qualified researchers and experts as Editorial Board Members from Microbiology and Pathology research scientific world. Based on your proficiency and immense contributions to Microbiology and Pathology research, we would like to invite you as Editorial Board Member. We are also planning to initiate “Inaugural Edition” and seeking quality submissions from qualified Scientists, Researchers and Experts of Microbiology and Pathology research for Inaugural Edition.
    You may please forward your updated CV, Biography, recent photograph and manuscripts to Manuscript formatting details are available on
    Anticipating your support and response in this regard to enable us to enhance the sharing of knowledge in the scientific community.
    Thank you very much.
    Mathew Stevens
    Clinical Journal of Microbiology and Pathology
    Jacobs Publishers
    9600 Great Hills
    Trail # 150 w
    Austin, Texas
    78759(Travis County)

    Best regards,

    • Mitch:
      I added this publisher to my list last week. I think it is extremely questionable, and I advise scholars to avoid it.

      I am wondering if it is connected to the publisher JSciMedCentral in any way — the “J” in the logo matches on both publishers’ websites.

      But perhaps this new questionable publisher just stole the logo from the older predatory publisher.


      Jeffrey Beall

      • Deepak says:

        Poetic justice, when one predator poaches the logo of another!

      • Paige lacy says:


        I also received an email from Jacobs Publishers as follows:

        Jacobs Publishers – Clinical Journal of Allergy and Immunology – Editorial Board Invitation
        Dear Dr. (x),
        Warm greetings from Jacobs Publishers!
        We introduce ourselves as Jacobs Publishers have initiated a Journal called Clinical Journal of Allergy and Immunology; Jacobs Publishers is an Open access journal that publishes peer-reviewed novel research related to Allergy & Immunology. Our journal focuses on the current areas of allergy, experimental immunology, including innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation, host defense, clinical immunology, autoimmunity and more.
        Clinical Journal of Allergy and Immunology welcomes qualified researchers and experts as Editorial Board Members from Allergy and Immunology research scientific world. Based on your proficiency and immense contributions to Allergy and Immunology, we would like to invite you as our Editorial Board Member. Clinical Journal of Allergy and Immunology, also planning to initiate “Inaugural Edition” and seeking quality submissions from qualified Scientists, Researchers and Experts of Immunology research for Inaugural Edition.
        You may please forward your updated CV, Biography, recent photograph and manuscripts to Manuscript format details are available on
        Anticipating your support and response in this regard to enable us to enhance the sharing of knowledge in the scientific community.

        Thank you very much.
        Moses Isabel
        Clinical Journal of Allergy and Immunology
        Jacobs Publishers
        900 Great Hills
        Trail # 150 w
        Austin, Texas
        78759(Travis County)

        Thank you for posting this comment as I would never have guessed that this was a dubious publisher.


      • Sure, and thanks for sharing this email you got from them.

      • Elsebeth says:

        Did you remove the publisher again, or just not add it? I don’t seem to find it on your list, if you refer to the above list. I received a similar email from them today.

      • Jacobs Publishers is on my list here:

      • Jernej Polajnar says:

        I just received an e-mail from Jacobs Publishers asking me to become an editorial board member, built on the same template as those already posted here, this time for a “Jacobs Journal of Agriculture”. Looks like it’s a massive spamming effort, because they didn’t even notice that they addressed me using the name of my (female) co-author on a recent paper.

      • Jernej Polajnar says:

        Also, at least their FAQ section is copy-pasted from Symbiosis Online Publishing, another one from your list.

    • Rebecca says:

      I recieved this e-mail:

      Neurology []BeantwoordenAllen beantwoordenDoorsturenActies
      [my name removed]
      maandag 6 oktober 2014 17:48

      Jacobs Publishers – Journal of Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience
      Dear Dr. Rebecca Holman,

      Warm greetings from Jacobs Publishers!

      We introduce ourselves as Jacobs Publishers initiated with a motto to serve scientific community. It’s an Open access publishing group publishes peer-reviewed articles related to different aspects of Medical, Life Sciences, Pharma, Chemistry and Engineering.
      We have initiated a Journal called Journal of Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience. All the manuscripts/Articles submitted are run through a detailed review by our eminent panel of Editorial Board who contribute their valuable time to review those articles. It’s our honour to invite eminent scientists/personalities, like you, to publish quality research work in the form of manuscripts/Articles to support global scientific community.
      Being Jacobs publishers is in to Open Access; authors are requested to pay 499 USD after completing peer review process and accepted by our esteemed editorial board members.
      Article Types: Original Submissions, Review Articles, Case Reports and Short Reports etc.

      Manuscript format details are available on
      Mathew Stevens
      Journal of Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience
      Jacobs Publishers
      900 Great Hills
      Trail # 150 w
      Austin, Texas
      78759(Travis County)

  112. Benno von Bormann, MD says:

    I was invited by OMICS group to contribute for the Journal of Blood Disorders & Transfusion, either via website or sending the manuscript attached to an Email. I did the latter after a lot of work with the title, ‘Does Preoperative Anemia Deteriorate Patients postoperative Outcome or about the Difficulty of Comprehension.’ After peer review with some minor remarks the manuscript was eventually accepted, and up to that point the whole process was professional. Sending the final file for proof reading they surprisingly added an invoice of an amount of 1,500,- $ for publishing, something I of course denied. In response to my wondering letter they indicated that the conditions for publishing are described in their website. However, submitting the manuscript directly via mail, as offered, I didn’t have this information. Because I will never pay for being published the paper was retracted by me and my co-author. These organizations are money-collectors. Their prey are people who are in desperate need for publication(s) due to rules of their affiliation (uiniversity, company). It’s an industry.
    A positive example as yet is the Baishideng Publishing Group. They asked for a case report emphasizing from the beginning that there will be no costs at all.

    • Benno von Bormann, MD says:

      Journal of Blood Disorders & Transfusion: In fairness I have to add, that the paper was published today with a quite professional layout including all essential informations, without payment of course. Not bad, and therefore no problem for us. Unfortunately the Journal is nowhere listed (PubMed etc.) but can be found easily using Google.

    • Thomas says:

      “Their prey are people who are in desperate need for publication(s) due to rules of their affiliation (uiniversity, company). It’s an industry.”
      I would argue that the same apply to well known journals like Science or Nature just to name those 2.
      When you’re a non-tenured faculty at Harvard or Stanford, you’re somewhat required to publish in those journals. The “prestigious” publishers know it, and make their “preys” pay a huge fee to publish, far exceeding the 1500$ you mention.

      In fact, I personally had quite an unpleasant experience with 2 famous journals from Oxford University press, which would be considered a good publisher.
      The service wasn’t very professional as the editors introduced typos in the text (which they refused to correct), the final layout was questionable (misaligned parts) and figure colors were ridiculously flashy. Not to mention that the paper was actually published/printed more than one year after it was accepted…

  113. lihachtel says:

    Dear Beall, I really commend your work. It is quite helpful.
    Recently I got an email from Scholars’ Press (Germany) would like to publish my PHD thesis. One of the conditions is shown as below, how do you think of this publisher !? will it be added on your 2015 list !?

    “The Author transfers to the Publisher without limitation of place the exclusive right of reproduction and dissemination (Publisher’s right) of the work for the duration of statutory copyright including all additional bibliographical texts and/or images supplied by the Author (e.g. cover text, biographical details) for all print and electronic editions (e-book) and for all print runs without limit of units and in all language versions. In the case of works which have already been published by other publishing houses, a non-exclusive right of use shall be transferred. The Author shall continue to be the copyright holder of his work.”

    • This is not an open-access publisher. They want you to sign over copyright to them, and then they will try to sell copies of your thesis. There’s nothing wrong with this, but you may be better off publishing your work in an open-access venue, and keeping your copyright. It is your decision.

  114. sunith says:

    Dear Mr.Jeffrey Beal,

    could you please tell me about the International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering Research and Development (IJCSERD)

    Thank you

    • This journal’s publisher is Priyanka Research Journal (PRJ) Publication. This company is on my list, so I recommend that you not submit papers to any or its journals.

  115. […] InTech, the publisher of the journal, is on Jeffrey Beall’s list of questionable and potentially predatory publishers. […]

  116. […] The journal publisher is on Beall’s “List of Predatory Publishers 2014″ :…blishers-2014/ The two studies critiqued Mangano J, Sherman J, Busby C. (2013). Changes in confirmed plus […]

  117. […] L’éditeur de journal qui a refusé la publication, est sur ​​la "Liste des prédateurs Publishers 2014" Beall: […]

  118. Mathew Peet says:

    Possble typo, 420. Smartpub links to (which exists) seems to be domain name sitters.

  119. […] a refusé la publication, est sur ​​la "Liste des prédateurs Publishers 2014" Beall: Les deux études scientifiques  les plus  critiquées sont: Mangano J, J Sherman, Busby C. […]

  120. […] The journal publisher is on Beall’s “List of Predatory Publishers 2014″ :… […]

  121. Lukman says:

    Dear Mr. Beall

    Thank you for the list that you created and always updated.
    Last month, my manuscript was published in The publisher have two full address in Australia and the United States. Is my manuscript published will be useless? Best regards.

    • This publisher does list an Australia and a New York City address as you indicate; this tells us for sure that the publisher is not based in either Australia or New York. Your research will not be useless, but in the future, I think you should find a better publisher. Good luck.

      • Dart says:

        Dear Mr. Beall,
        Just for good purpose, i think this company is really based at least in Australia, because their bank account are in Australia with the same name of company…but this is just my opinion,tell me if i’m wrong

      • Hum Chan says:

        Dear sir

        One of my paper got published by Science Publishing Group. And now I realize that Science Publishing Group is a predatory journal. What can I do for this?

      • There is no easy solution to this. This publisher is completely bogus, and they probably will not withdraw your paper or return your money, even if you ask.

  122. Mustafa says:

    Dear Beall,

    Thanks for your effort here. Actually, I think it is better to check out the publisher “SOCIETY FOR SCIENCE AND NATURE”. I think it is somewhere in Africa. Have you checked it before? If so, did you find any doubt about it?
    Please let us know about it.


    • Hi, Mustafa:

      Thanks — I do have this publisher on my list. Please see my list here. I recommend that you find a better publisher than this one for your research.



      • Mustafa says:

        Thank you so much. I am sorry, I wasn’t aware of the name, and I found it now in your list.
        Sure, I’ll not throw my paper in such journal, but I wondered how could they have DOI for their publications or even ISSNs for all of those journals if they don’t have real publishers? Could anybody do that easily?
        Thank you

      • Oh, yes. Standard numbers such as the ISSN and DOIs are often given out without regard for quality.

      • Mustafa says:

        Sorry for bothering again, but have you looked at this website?
        They describe themselves as:
        American Research Publications is USA based publications and American Research Publications are covering all kind of subjects such as General Science, Engineering Science, Science & Technology, Environment & Earth Science, Computer & Information Science, Commerce & Banking, Business & Management, Agricultural Science & engineering, Medical Science & Public Health, Energy & Power, Arts & Social Science, and etc.
        American Research Publications is an open access publications. American Research Publications is inviting to you submit your valuable research work to your desire journal.

      • Yes, this publisher is on my list. Most definitely, do not submit any papers to its many journals.

  123. ayodele says:

    Sir, I just published with textroad journal, and this is freed of charges after a 3 months thorough review and scrutiny. Do you still believe this is questionable?

    • Yes, I think you made a mistake.

    • AlexH says:

      I think that a convincing rebuttal of Mr. Beall’s evaluation must start with making available the (anonymized & full-text) peer reviews for, let’s say, all articles published in the last 3 issues.

      I’ve seen something similar at , where the first published reviews under the “peer review history” seems genuine and (most of the times) written by experts who were able to make substantial comments and critiques. However, it is still dubious whether final acceptance decisions was made based on the expert’s comment or not, or if the company tried to “balance” negative expert peer evaluations with positive non-expert or even “fake” reviews or not. Maybe its worth to reevaluate this publisher sometimes in the future.

      (disc. I’m not affiliated with sciencedomain or any of its journals)

  124. Sue says:

    Dear Jeffery,

    Thanks for your efforts. In fact, a friend of mine has just assigned a contract as an assistant manager in one of the listed journals. He knew that the journal that he accepted to work for has been Q4 ranked without an impact factor or index in the PubMed for eight years. I recommended him to skip it, but he believed that he can do the change and make it really a reputably journal. Do you think he can withdrew it from the list in one year or two?. Is that feasible?. Thanks.

  125. Jan Szczepanski says:

    Hi Jeffrey,

    Found this in the German EZB

    Titel: International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Mathematical Research (IJSIMR)
    RSS Icon
    Verlag: Academicians’ Research Center (ARC)
    Open Access Policy des Verlages in SHERPA/RoMEO suchen
    Fachgruppe(n): Mathematik
    Schlagwort(e): Allgemeine Mathematik
    E-ISSN(s): 2347-3142
    P-ISSN(s): 2347-307X
    ZDB-Nummer: 2737668-0
    erste Volltextausgabe: Jg. 1, H. 1 (2013)

    I got bad vibrations but Academicians’ Research Center is not on your list. What do you think?


    • Thank you — I will give this one a full analysis. At first glance, I see some significant problems. It launched with nine, broad journals. They even launched without ISSNs. Everything was quickly created with a template, and this shows that you can create a new scholarly publisher is about a day, and immediately start collecting money from researchers.

    • Hi, Jan, Thanks for sharing this information. I have analyzed this publisher and added it to my list. Thanks again, Jeffrey.

  126. Mari says:

    Hello Doctor

    Could you please let me know if these following journals are in the BLACK list or not? are they ISI?

    1) The scientific world journal

    2) Indian Journal of Scientific Research (IJSR)

    Thanks a lot

    • The Scientific World Journal is not on my list. It is not a predatory journal.
      The Indian Journal of Scientific Research is indeed on my list. It is a questionable journal, and I recommend that you NOT submit any papers to it. Good luck.

  127. […] proteger os pesquisadores de tais editores, foi criada uma lista de periódicos questionáveis que é atualizada todos os anos. É recomendado que pesquisadores, cientistas e acadêmicos evitem […]

  128. Benno von Bormann says:

    Dear Jeffrey,
    I’m a retired Anesthesiological Prof. working as a scientific adviser in Asia. This part of the world has great potential, and is consequently in great need for publication, the more as acceptance by the established Journals is increasingly difficult to achieve. Your list is extremely helpful to avoid traps and pitfalls.
    I didn’t find the following dubious(?) company on your list: SciMed Central. They catched me for the Editorial Board because I found some reputable names already in it. Strangely they changed from Herald Scholarly Open Access to SciMed Central. Sounds not convincing. The final hint is the submisson process: One file (word or PDF) to an Emailaddress. Can you confirm? I consider to cancel my cooperation. Thank’s in advance, Peter

    • Sir, sorry for the confusion. I do have this publisher included on my list. It is listed as JScimed Central, so it is listed under “J”. I agree it is dubious, and I do recommend that you not work with them.

  129. Heru says:

    Mr. Jeff…….
    I am Heru from Indonesia…..
    please give me several names of —–CLEAN JOURNALS, that publish the researches about INFORMATION SYSTEMS
    Thank’s Sir.

  130. wakhid jauhari says:

    Could you tell me if the Advances in decision sciences and advances in operations research (Hindawi publisher) are good journals or a predatory journals

  131. Dr khan says:

    Hello Beall,
    Could you please check the following. its a pakistani journal..
    International Journal of Basic Medical Sciences and Pharmacy (IJBMSP)

  132. Niloofar says:

    Dear Mr. Beal,
    Thank gou very much for providing us with useful information. The problem is that I needed a journal which gives quick response and I could not wait for a long time. I sent my paper to international journal of English language and translation studies. It is accepted. I don’t know what to do now. I couldn’t find a good journal which gives an early response. How about Asian EFL journal? Is it good or better than IJ-ELTS? Thank you in advance for your consideration.

    • I don’t know which are the most and least respected journals in fields outside my own. Quick acceptance and high quality usually don’t go together in scholarly publishing.

      • “Quick acceptance and high quality usually don’t go together in scholarly publishing.” — This is probably true in general, but I think it is less true now than it used to be. Here are a few rather different examples: (1) Elsevier journals post their median review times online for each journal, and they get the unedited submitted manuscript online very quickly after acceptance, with edited proofs following quickly. (2) There have always been journals aiming at fast publication times, like Neuroscience Letters, and the new, highly selective journal eLife aims to do something similar. I have also been quite impressed with PeerJ, which is much like PLoS One; it’s too new for an impact factor but publishes accepted papers quite rapidly. (4) I think there is a place for the mildly radical publishing model of F1000Research (publish first, review second, revise as needed; indexed in PubMed only after positive reviews), both for work that is not at all groundbreaking but deserves to see the light of day and for work for which you need a citable publication before submitting an NIH grant application.
        Since it may matter to the discussion, I do have a good bit of experience with scientific writing.

      • P.S. I should probably add for transparency that I am (one of hundreds of) unpaid academic editors for PeerJ, and have published in PLoS ONE and F1000Research, in addition to journals from Elsevier (and NPG and etc.)

  133. Reblogged this on Ressources électroniques des bibliothèques de l'UQAM and commented:
    Voici une liste bien intéressante…la liste des éditeurs Open Access au comportement prédateur. Beall inclut même les critères permettant de déterminer si un éditeur ou un périodique est prédateur. Bonne lecture !

  134. Sven says:

    Dear Mr. Beall,

    Recently I got two invitations to be part of the editorial board ( The second one was from Austin Publishing Group, which is on your list. So I ignored it.

    However, the first one was from VRJ Publishers ( for the Journal of Bioinformatics Research Studies ( It is not on your list but it seemed suspect to me.

    Can you provide an opinion/assessment on this publisher/journal?



  135. […] some of the members such as Prof. Andrzej Kloczkowski are associated with other journals by questionable publishers (OMICS Publishing Group in this […]

  136. Said Bin M S says:

    Dear Mr Jeffrey,
    Thank you very much for this kind work you are doing!
    Well! After that, I have one special request (advice) to you for us.

    I found that most of journals I came across on internet are in your list, really I feel headache on that. I don’t know which one is not included there, so it take long to observe every journal for authenticity.

    MY REQUEST: Apart from popular publishers like ELSEVIER, I request you to add another page here on you web reading like “HONEST/RELIABLE JOURNALS/PUBLISHERS” this will help us focusing on them so as can save our time searching for a ‘good’.

    When you are reviewing journals and publishers, and found that one is honest just put it on for us.

    Thus is all for now from me, hope is clear, understandable and taken for consideration.

  137. saleem says:

    Dear Mr Jeffrey,

    What about this journal. “International journal of photoenergy”. IS it ok???


  138. Kousar says:

    Dear Jeffrey,

    why these two journals in your list? both are ISI indexed.
    1. Research Journal of Recent Sciences
    2. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences

    Kindly, tell me the reson so i’ll satisfy to others.


  139. Benno von Bormann says:

    Dear Mr. Beall,
    my I ask your opinion about the ‘World Journal of Clinical Cases’, ( which is one of many open access Journals of a group called ESPS, Baishideng Publishing Group, 8226 Regency Drive, Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA. They ask for submitting a manuscript as a single word file, something that strikes me odd. Thank you for your effort.

  140. Hamid says:

    Dear Dr. Beall,
    Warm greetings of the day,
    “International journal of English language and translation studies” is on your list. This journal accepted my manuscript. I thought it is an ISC journal. Now I don’t know what to do. Isn’t it ISC? In general, what is your opinion of ISC journals.
    Thank you in advance for your consideration.

  141. Dear Dr. Beall,

    Could you please tell me about Journal of Advances in Computer Networks (JACN). Is it fine? the link is

    Many thanks.

  142. Dear Sir, What about European Academic Research?

  143. Simone Galina says:

    Dear Dr Beall,
    May I know your opinion about ´Academic Publishing Platforms´ and especifically PERSPECTIVES OF INNOVATIONS, ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS?
    Thank you in advance.

  144. Sigit says:

    Dear Dr Beall,

    May I know your opinion of Journal of Knowledge Management Practice and Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management ? Are they legitimate journal or not? Thank you very much

    • I haven’t analyzed the first one. I am not sure that it qualifies as a true scholarly journal, so I don’t want to spend any time evaluating it. Based on my quick look, I would advise looking for a more mainstream journal — publishing in this journal is not going to help your career, in my opinion.

      I have not analyzed the The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management either.

  145. Steve says:

    Hi Jeffrey,
    I would like to have more information about Symbiosis. For example Journal of Nutritional Health & Food Science is a new journal and already several international groups have contributed to this journal. There is an Editorial Board. So it seems OK to me,
    Thank you,


  146. H. K. Das says:

    What’s about American Journal of Operations Research? Is it good to publish a paper in Scientific Research Publishing? In which quality it maintain?

    • This journal is published by a publisher called Scientific Research Publishing (SCIRP). This publisher is included on my list, so I recommend that you NOT submit any papers to this journal.

  147. muafipaciran says:

    Dear Mr Jeffrey,

    What about this journal. “International journal of research studies in Management indexed by Microsoft Academic Search (MAS)?”.
    Are this journal indexed by MAS?
    I will be waiting for your information. Thanks Prof.

  148. adhi says:

    Dear Mr.Jeffrey Beal,

    could you please tell me about the International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science(IJITCS)

    Thank you

  149. Jan Szczepanski says:

    Hi again,

    eSci Journals Publishing is a publisher in Pakistan that I would appreciate your opinion about.


    • Good question. This publisher used to be on my list. They appealed, and my appeals board recommended that I remove them. This occurred about a year ago. I am increasingly receiving inquiries like this one asking about this publisher, an indication to me that some find it fishy. Perhaps it’s time for another analysis.

      • Sheraz Ahmed says:

        What is the current status of esci journals in your opinion? Last year I sent them a manuscript and after a month they rejected it. they even didnt send it to a reviewer.
        The manuscript was not novel but any predatory journal would have accepted it.
        so I think they are fair enough.

  150. Debarchana says:

    Respected Sir,
    May I know your opinion of the following three journals? Are they legitimate journal or not? I would really appreciate your opinion about them.Thank you very much in advance.

    1.Journal of Microbiology & Experimentation (JMEN) by Medcrave Publishers

    2. International Trends in Immunity (ITI) by Research Publisher

    3. SOJ Microbiology & Infectious Diseases (SOJMID) by Symbiosis.

  151. Benno von Bormann says:

    Dear Dr. Beall,
    between others who contacted me during the last days (‘warmest greetings from…’) I didn’t find these two groups in your list. I think they are suspicious, as they both have tons of OAJ in their portfolio and proper information about the members of the various Editorial boards and their affiliations are often lacking. At least they do not hide that they expect payment.

    1. Jacobs Publishers,
    2. Frontiers in medicine,

    May I have your opinion.
    Thank you very much. Benno

  152. […] people are taken in to make the venture worthwhile. If you have any doubts then there is a useful list of predatory publishers that you may consult. It is regularly […]

  153. May says:

    Hi Jeff,

    Any thoughts on these 2 open access journals?
    1) Progress in Biomaterials ( Here is their copyright policy: (

    2) Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ( Here is their copyright policy: (

    #1 is from Springer Open and #2 from Elsevier (but I couldn’t find it on Elsevier open access journal list).

    Your feedback is much appreciated.

    Also, a big thanks for this list- it is has helped so many researchers.

    Kind regards.

    • May says:

      Hi Jeff,

      Could you please tell me if these 2 journals are good places to submit academic research? I googled and couldn’t find much information on these journals.

      I would appreciate your input and advice.

      Thank you.

    • These two journals do not meet the criteria as predatory journals. I think they are fine.

  154. Lomax says:

    Hi, I would like to know about the journal. European Scientific Journal, Portugal. I cannot imagine they accepted an article within less than two (2) weeks. And publication fee is 97euros. They publish between 3 or 4 volumes in a month. Impact Factor is quoted as 8.25. Still shaking my head.

    • I recently added this journal to my list and recommend against submitting papers to it or to any other journals published by this publisher.

    • AlexH says:

      They are doing editorial review, not external peer evaluation: “Authors can publish their articles and thesis, after a review by our editorial board.” It is possible to make a decision within a few weeks if they use editorial reviewing.

      • ZaniQ says:

        Actually it doesn’t take 2 weeks, but only several days after submission. They don’t offer any reviews from the external reviewers. I think this is suspicious. Before submission I did not find any negative news about this publisher. Now I am very disappointed when I see its name appears on the potential predatory OA journal list.

    • billwilliams says:

      Don’t think it the European Scientific Journal is actually based in Portugal – seems more like Macedonia.(although they do have an office in the Azores apparently).

  155. Rick says:

    What do you think about the “Frontiers in” journals? Seems to me that they are predatory for a variety of reasons. Just wondering if they are new enough that they haven’t made your list.

    It’s interesting how certain names seem to pop up on editorial boards of many of these predatory journals. Not even sure that these are names of real people, but that should be a giveaway itself. If you google the name of an editor and it comes up as an editor of numerous shady journals.

    Thanks for your excellent work compiling a list like this.

  156. […] paper delivered by Dr Carina van Zyl from the CSIR on Predatory publishers. There are tools such as Beall’s list of predatory publishers that libraries can use to stay safe from these Predatory publishers, Beall can be followed on […]

  157. A says:

    please verify this journal
    1. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
    2.International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering(

    • I’m very sorry — I don’t have time to properly analyze these journals at this time. I have added to my backlog here:

      There are just too many megajournals such as these appearing. I don’t have time to review them all. I would suggest that, if you find these journals questionable, you seek a higher quality place to publish your work. Thank you.

  158. Rafat says:

    Dear Jeffrey,

    Kindly tell me about the “Journal of Life Sciences (ISSN 1934-7391), USA, David Publishing Company, However, the name of David Publisher is on your list. But they claimed that they have ISSN number and their impact of 2009 and 2011 as 3.3 and 5.2 respectively. Furthermore, I could not found Impac of 2012 and 2013 through Google. I am confused now. Please tell me about this journal and the company..

    Best Regards

    • Rafat:
      I don’t see on their website where they say their journals have impact factors. Nevertheless, this publisher is on my list, and I strongly recommend that you not submit a paper to any of its journals. I recommend finding a better publisher.

  159. Aliah says:

    Very informative! I would like to follow this post.

  160. Stephanie says:

    Any thoughts on BioMed Research International? (formerly titled Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology) claims impact factor of 2.88

  161. rplimaye says:

    Why have you included RJPBCS they claim to be in NLM list soon.Please give us information about it.Thanks for thr great work

    • Right, this journal, Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences (RJPBCS), does indeed make a lot of claims. It (falsely) claims to have an impact factor of 0.35, for example. As you indicate, it may claim that it will be cataloged (not indexed) in the NLM online catalog soon, but this is not a measure of quality. I find this broad-scope journal to be amateurish and recommend that scholars find a more professional venue for their work.

      • rplimaye says:

        Thanks for this detailed response. Unfortunate that I read your article late.Thanks anyway. I will refer the list before I make any future mistakes.

  162. Tilahun says:

    Any comment on International Journal of Insect Science, Journal of Entomology and Nematology, Journal of Applied Biosciences, and Biopesticides International?

    • Regarding the International Journal of Insect Science, this is published by a company called Libertas Academica. This publisher is not on my list, but many find this to be a questionable publisher.

      Regarding the Journal of Entomology and Nematology, this is published by the Nigerian publisher Academic Journals, which is on my list, so I would generally advise people to seek a better entomology journal than this one.

      The Journal of Applied Biosciences is published by Elewa Biosciences, which is on my list.

      The journal Biopesticides International is not open access, so I haven’t analyzed it.

  163. […] does occasionally land on the list of “predatory publishers,” that is, a publisher who demands money to publish. Which Hindawi does for all of its […]

  164. M. M. Khan says:

    Dear Jeffry! Really a commendable work and very informative for researchers and contributors.
    Can you share your analysis about IGI Global publishers:
    Thanks in advance!

  165. […] the notorious (not exaggerating) publisher Bentham Science. Bentham is accused of being a predatory publisher, meaning they charge the author to publish an article, probably because the article can find no […]

  166. Dear Jeffry,How about Praiseworthy Prize Publisher with a publication fee of ~USD200. My student submitted his paper to the journal (I.R.M.E.) and I was happy for him until I read some of the abstracts. Maybe I am wrong but e.g. a short abstract written in 2 paragraphs with related issues presented. It seemed odd.

  167. Professor Martin Fiebert says:

    I have published a number of articles in the International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities. I have been pleased with peer review process and editing. the cost is reasonable (no more than well established journals like Psychological Reports or Perceptual Motor Skills) and the turn around time is also reasonable. I know the journal is relatively new and is located in India. Publication is both online and in hard copy. I am interested in your thoughts.

    • Aliah says:

      I have submitted and paid quite a big amount of money for my article’s publication in December, 2013, to Pensee Journal ( At that moment I didn’t have an idea at all about the existence of such kind hilacked journals! Now of course the Ministry of Science did not consider it as publication…i just wanna know why this journal is still continuing its crime?? Just look at the latest archive (…It is a profitable business of course. Basically authors are from non english countries and they do not have information about that at all. Are there any ways to punish those people??..

      • Excellent questions– I wish I had some good answers. I am just trying to warn people about this and other scholarly publishing scams. I’m not sure what else I can do.

    • This journal is on my list, and I recommend that scholars not publish there.
      How long was the turn around time for each article?
      Are you willing to share the peer reviews with me? How many times did you have to revise and resubmit each article? Or, what was the extent of the changes the reviewers asked you to make? How many articles in total have you published there?

  168. Aliah says:

    Dear Mr Jeffrey Beall, thank you very much for your help for the authors! I wish I had seen your blog much earlier, but this is a good lesson for me of course, and i am going to warn my colleagues as well to be very very careful. I think it is just a question of time and…unfortunately money. I strongly beleive your blog must be speaded to each Ministry of Education and Science around the world especially to non english-speaking and developing countries!

  169. Professor Martin Fiebert says:

    Professor Beall in response to to questions of June 21: Over the past 3 years I have published 7 articles in the International Review of Social Science & Humanities (IRSSH). The articles ranged from an historical/psychological examination of Black-Jewish relations, to a approach to Gestalt therapy as well as a series of studies conducted by myself, colleagues and students exploring Facebook Behaviors. The turn around time for articles ranged from 2 to 5 months. The articles themselves have been viewed, cited and download from RESEARCHGATE. The cost of publication has been quite reasonable averaging about $200.00. The Journal itself has been consistent in is publication schedule (I think 3 times a year) and is available open access as well as in hard copy. As you may infer I am quite pleased with the policies & operation of IRSSH and would encourage researchers who have had terrible experiences with other journals to consider publishing in IRSSH. I myself am a full professor of Psychology at California State University, Long Beach starting my 50th year of teaching. If you check out my webpage or RESEARCHGATE you will note that I have published 59 articles in peer-reviewed journals..

  170. Ghias says:

    Jeffrey Beall

    What you say about “World Applied Sciences Journal”. We have already published some papers in this journal. last year This journal mentioned its impact factor but now removed from the website.Kindly also inform that Thomson Reuters, if removed, the name of a journal from the master list, does they can include again. or removed forever.

    thanks and regards


    • This journal is published by a company called IDOSI. This publisher is on my list, so I recommend against submitting papers to this journal or the others published by this company.

      This journal used to be indexed by Scopus, but the index decided to prospectively drop the journal. Please, find a better publisher. Good luck.

  171. M says:

    i had published 3 paper on Academic Journals on 2009-2010. my papers have not any worth now?!

    • The value of articles is measured differently than the value of journals.
      How many citations have your papers had, for example?

      • M says:

        Dear Jeffrey
        until now, my papers had had 4 citations. you think it were enough for that and they have valuable for my resume?! thanks a lot for your reply.

  172. hamed says:

    Dear Jeffrey,
    I have recently sent one of my papers to a journal entitled “”
    however I want to ask you about this journal, is that authentic??? I do apreciate your comments on it. thanks

    • I had not heard of this journal before. It seems to be published by a company called Dargah-e-ahlebait.

      On their website, they say, “Journal of biotechnological sciences is published by dargah-e-ahlebait (Pakistan). A institute who prefer qualitative scientific work for publication. We have expert international team for evolution.”

      I will try to make time to fully analyze this publisher (it appears they publish two journals). In the meantime, I would recommend finding a better publisher. This one seems very amateurish.

    • Hi, Hamed,
      Thank you for your comment. I have analyzed this publisher and added it to my list.
      How long did your peer review take? The site does not mention anything about article processing charges. Did they ask you to pay anything? I could not find a contact email on the site — only a web form. I would recommend that you find a better publisher. This one seems very amateurish. Good luck.

      • hamed says:

        actually they don not charge authors at all. moreover they accepted my paper immediately and published it, so I understood that they don’t peer-review articles. but it indexed by google scholar, is that valuable??? I can see my paper in google scholar and it, somehow, satisfied me. is this good?

        thanks for your kind help.

      • Yes, in fact there is some value in being indexed in Google Scholar. It helps people find your articles easier. It increases visibility of articles.

  173. Kimberly says:

    Dear Jeffrey,
    I was recently contacted by the Journal of Research on Contemporary Society (ISSN 1998-2607) a new academic journal, which is published by Longbridge Publishing Company Limited, Hong Kong. They are interested in one of my manuscripts based on an abstract they found in a conference abstract package. Can you tell me if they’re credible?

    Thank you so much for all you do.

  174. Josh says:

    Dear Jeffrey,
    I was recently invited to submit a manuscript to AIMS Neuroscience, a new OA journal listed here:
    I looked into the editorial board and they appear to be credible scholars who have published their own work in a number of different journals. The AIMS website states that the OA fee will be waived for the first 3 years of the journal in an effort to encourage submissions since this is a new journal. I am eager to hear your thoughts on this OA journal.
    Best Regards,

    • I have analyzed this publisher before, and during that analysis, I did not find that the publisher met the criteria for inclusion on my list. Looking at it again, I reach the same conclusion. If you think I am missing something, i.e., that the publisher should be added, please let me know why. Thanks.

      • Josh says:

        I agree with your conclusion and I appreciate that you took the time to look into it. I value your expertise on issues of OA journals and I wanted to ask you for your professional opinion. I’m glad that our evaluations (that this particular publisher appears valid) corroborated each other.
        Excellent website, knowledgebase, and resource on OA journals.
        Kind regards,

  175. Bijan Ehsanzadeh says:

    Dear Mr. Beall,
    Recently I have submitted my paper on “Open Journal of Geology (OJG)” which is classified as the subset for “Scientific Research Publisher”. It has been accepted, as I thought so. But my very question is that do you find such journals genuine? I mean, I am a student and I have to defend my thesis in two months. I really need to submit my studies. I have been working on them for almost a year. Dose these publishers decrease the validity of my studies?

    • Are you referring to the Open Journal of Geology that is published by Scientific Research Publishing? If so, then yes, this publisher is on my list, and I recommend that you find a better quality publisher for your work. This publisher is known for accepting and publishing questionable science, and this could hurt the reputation of your work if you publish in one of their journals. Good luck with your defense.

  176. Arunava says:

    Dear Sir,

    Can you please verify whether the “Journal of Electrical Engineering” (website: is a predatory journal or is it ok? Thanks in advance.

    With warm Regards,

    • I haven’t analyzed this journal. I didn’t know about it. I will try to analyze it as soon as I can. Thanks for letting me know about it.

      • Arunava says:

        Thank you for your prompt reply. The Editor and some of the Editorial board members of this journal are eminent researchers and academicians in Electrical Engg. However, they’ve not published in this journal. This looks a bit fishy to me. Also the impact factor is a bit questionable. But I’ve seen it is indexed in Google Scholar. Eagerly waiting for your view.
        Warm Regards,

      • I’ve added this journal to my list. I observed some serious problems with plagiarism. I would recommend finding a better electrical engineering journal.

  177. Abd-Elrahman says:

    dear Prof. Beall
    Can you please verify whether the Journal of
    Network Biology ISSN 2220-8879 ( is a predatory journal or not?

    • I had not heard of this publisher (International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences (IAEES)) before, so thank you for letting me know about it. I have analyzed it and added it to my list. I would suggest that you find a better publisher for your work. Thanks again.

  178. Subramaniyaswamy says:

    Dear Dr. Beall,

    Very useful for finding out predatory publishers. May i know, when the impact factor of the journal will be released by Thomson Reuters.

  179. Abd-Elrahman says:

    Please, tell me how you evaluate its credibility ?

  180. Ahmed says:

    Hello Professor
    May you please let me know if this following journal is in the Fake list or not?
    It is a SCI?
    Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology

    • Yes, the journal’s publisher, OMICS Publishing Group, is on my list. I recommend that you NOT submit any articles to this journal. Please find a better journal.

    • Andy says:

      OMICS is fake, so i will not expect any journal it produces to be authentic. Jeffrey will confirm!!!!

  181. Dear Jeffrey,
    I haven’t seen Praizeworthy Publisher on your list. Can you please check? My colleagues have published many papers here, I.R.E.M.E.)0 is one of them and since it’s scopus-indexed, publications are used for career promotions. Authors have to pay for publications. The reason I asked is because I wonder about the quality of some of the papers when I started reading some of them – I’m an academician in a public university. Thank you.

    • Dr. Ghazali, I removed this publisher from my list recently. They changed their publishing model from open access to toll access (subscription model). I prefer to cover only open-access publishers. Still, I think your observations about this publisher are correct, and I would personally advise scholars to avoid this publisher and find a better one.

  182. M. M. Khan says:

    Hi, Jeffery Beall! What are your comments on River Publishers:

    • I haven’t heard of this publisher before. I will analyze it.
      I’d appreciate hearing your comments on it and any experiences you’ve had.

      • M. M. Khan says:

        Thanks for your reply. I haven’t had any experiences with this publishers but came to know of this through some friends who were interested in a book (perhaps) just published by them online. If it is reliable then I would like to recommend and also publish some works with them. I will wait for your analysis.

    • This publisher does not meet the criteria for inclusion on my list.

  183. Aslam says:

    Dear Beall,

    I want ask a simple question

    On what criteria you have made this list? Also please mention that do you have proofs against these publishers?

  184. Deepak Batura says:

    Dear Mr Beall,

    Once again, I tap into your expertise for help with this new journal, called “Bladder”. Its a new publication and I am afraid I don’t know who the publishers are. The editorial board is very impressive and there seem there be no incongruities in their call for papers. The website URL is

    Kind regards,


  185. N.K. Gunasekara says:

    I already know that you are very experienced in what you are doing.
    Please don’t take me wrong…
    Out of curiosity…would it be possible that a budding publisher..or a standalone journal which is publishing with good scientific conduct…but lacks the capital to employ all up-to-date systems to process and archive and enlisted as bogus here?
    Only someone who’s published with them will know about their adherence to ethics.
    Wouldn’t enlisting someone like that here be “unethical”?

    • A very clever question … if you lack sufficient capital you really shouldn’t start a business in any sector. The overall criteria for adding a publisher or journal to the list are lack of transparency, intentional use of deception, and lack of adherence to industry standards. Your statement “Only someone who’s published with them will know about their adherence to ethics” is false. It is possible to observe unethical behavior without publishing with a particular publisher.

      • N.K. Gunasekara says:

        Business isn’t my thing either…but isn’t “lack of adherence to industry standards” a common flaw in almost all budding publishers? after the phase of survival as a business, it’s a matter of time when they adhere to business standards…which again guarantees long term survival.
        But of course in combination with the other two it might indicate fraud.
        Thank you for your hard work…considering to benefit from it. Like you sir, I am a cautious person too, in fact very…
        But, I do see a changing world…Don’t you?

        Would like to know how one…I…could know about unethical behavior-lack of transparency and intentional use of deception- by checking on the publisher’s website. That’s the publisher we would see. (I am an author…not a publisher) What are the main things we should look for? Is COPE membership a must for a publisher? it a good to have?

  186. Gerek Kanzinski says:

    Hi, is Pushpa Publishing House: Advances and Applications in Statistics a predatory journal? I could not determine it from their website, and could not find this journal in your list. Here is the website:

    • It is not on my list because it’s not an open-access publisher. One has to pay for the articles or subscribe to the journals. I limit my lists to OA journals/publishers. Thanks.

  187. Gerek Kanzinski says:

    Thank you for your time and hard work!

  188. Kibet Langat says:

    Hi Jeff
    Could you please let me know your comments on Recent Science publisher
    I’m considering publishing in some of its Computer Science and Electrical and Electronics journals.

    • Well, each one of its journals claims to have a high impact factor, (e.g., 3.228, 3.121) but in fact none of their journals has a legitimate impact factor. I recommend that you find an honest publisher.

  189. Leo Odongo says:

    How about Far East Journal of Mathematical Sciences? Is it really credible?

  190. Leo Odongo says:

    Hi Jef
    Would you kindly guide me where to find a list of credible open access journals in Statistics? I would appreciate this very much.

    • I focus on the questionable journals. I refer you to your university librarian. I don’t know what the top journal are in fields other than my own (library science).

  191. Chris says:

    Hi Jeffrey,

    What’s your take on Environmental Sciences Europe (ESEU), the journal that republished the retracted Seralini paper without putting it through another review process.



  192. Homa says:

    Dear Beall, Quest Journals Inc. is the questionable journal? or questionable publisher? thanks

  193. Mtata Arsla says:

    Hi Beall.. please could help me with the publishers and journals related to music .. the questionable ones. Also could you tell me bout the list of journals that are included on are also of same kind? and what bout the publishers like : IJMCR, Discourse Journals, Novikoff A.V., State Natural History Museum NAS Ukraine.

    It’ll be of great help.


  194. baishali says:

    Intellect Journals are moving in academia rapidly. It’s website addresses are quite perplexing. I found these two web addresses – and ( from the aforementioned list) . Could anybody help me in understanding their quality ?

  195. Raj says:

    check this out – is this suspect? – it’s got hotmail addresses too in addition to “official” ones. I don’t plan to submit anything there. However, I thought I should let you know.
    This is the email I received from them. BAD ENGLISH!

    Dear …..,

    I read your article titled “——” on the journal —- And I know that you have explored deeply in this area. Your new manuscripts are invited to be published in Gastroenterology and Hepatology (GH), which is a peer-reviewed, open access journal published by Canadian Research & Development Center of Sciences and Cultures (CRDCSC). And it is free of charge to publish your new papers for the coming issue of July 2014.

    Gastroenterology and Hepatology is to provide a forum to share knowledge related to broad range of topics including medical, surgical, radiological, pathological, biochemical, physiological, ethical and historical aspects of the subject areas. Clinical trials are afforded expedited publication if deemed suitable. GH also deals with the basic sciences and experimental work, particularly that with a clear relevance to disease mechanisms and new therapies. Case reports and letters to the Editor are also accepted.

    We are calling for submission of new papers for the coming issue of July 2014. Please send the non-published manuscript to our email address listed below. Or you could do online submission at:

    If you have any questions, please contact us at the below email address. Attached is Cover Letter, please fill it and send back to us with your manuscripts.

    It is appreciated if you could share this information with your colleagues and associates.

    We are also recruiting reviewers for the journal. Please find further details at:, and email your CVs to us.

    Best regards,

    Mandy King | Editor (Intern)

    Gastroenterology and Hepatology

    ISSN 1925-9611 [Print]; ISSN 1925-962X [Online]

    Publisher: Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures

    Address: 730, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada



  196. Raj says:





    Introducing!! Landmark Research Journals of Business Management and Economics (LRJBME)

    Dear Colleague,

    The Landmark Research Journals of Business Management and Economics (LRJBME) is a multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal that will be published monthly by

    LRJBME is dedicated to increasing the depth of the subject across disciplines with the ultimate aim of expanding knowledge of the subject.

    Editors and reviewers

    LRJBME is seeking energetic, qualified and high profile researchers to join its editorial team as editors, subeditors or reviewers. Kindly send your resume to:

    Call for Research Articles.

    LRJBME will cover all areas of the subject. The journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence, and will publish:

    ? Original articles in basic and applied research

    ? Case studies

    ? Critical reviews, surveys, opinions, commentaries and essays

    We invite you to submit your manuscript(s): to,, for publication. Our objective is to inform authors of the decision on their manuscript(s) within two weeks of submission. Following acceptance, a paper will normally be published in the next issue. Guide to authors and other details are available on our website;

    LRJBME is an Open Access Journal

    One key request of researchers across the world is unrestricted access to research publications. Open access gives a worldwide audience larger than that of any subscription-based journal and thus increases the visibility and impact of published works. It also enhances indexing, retrieval power and eliminates the need for permissions to reproduce and distribute content. LRJBME is fully committed to the Open Access Initiative and will provide free access to all articles as soon as they are published.

    The advantages to you of publishing in Landmark Research Journals of Business Management and Economics (LRJBME)

    ? Full open access: everyone can read your article when it is published

    ? Publishing decision within 2 week of submission

    ? Prompt and fair peer review from two or more expert peer reviewers

    ? Frequent updates on your papers status

    ? Friendly responsive staff

    We welcome all your submissions.

    I hope you will consider Landmark Research Journals of Business Management and Economics (LRJBME) for your next submission.

    Best regards,

    Tracy Lucas

    Editorial Assistant,

    Landmark Research Journals of Business Management and Economics (LRJBME).


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  197. Raj says:


    International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences

  198. Raj says:


    International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research

    They have a “letter from Elsevier” –

    They even have their own “Impact Factor” calculated from Google Scholar, “demonstrated by” –

    They even have “good English instructions about using good English”

    They have their “own gmail” email addresses for contact

  199. Dickson Mireku
    we are very grateful to you

  200. Jean de Dieu says:

    Hello Sir, what about the African Journal of Ecology

  201. Ola says:

    My sister was asked by her lecturer to pay $100 to publish her project on international journal of computer science and information security. ijcsis
    the website address is
    can you please confirm that this site is genuine .

  202. Dear what about the Journal with the Title of “International Journal of English Literature and Culture” with ISSN of “2360-7831” please a quick answer…with the address of:

    • The journal’s publisher, Academic Research Journals, is on my list, so I recommend finding a better journal than this one.

      • thanks for the reply…
        Dear Mr. Beall what about Journal with the title of
        “International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research” and ISSN: 2229-5518…
        since I published two of my papers, is the one to be Predatory…

      • Mr. Muhammed, This journal is included on my list here:
        Therefore, I recommend that you NOT submit any papers to this journal. I recommend that you find a better journal for your work. Good luck.

      • Dear Mr. Beall
        the given journal can be found in Global Impact Factor, can you tell me a list for those Journals who are not included in your list, or any website which we can check other than your website?
        How do you know that these Journals are in Black list?
        Can you give me a website for those Journals who are not Predators? Since I want to publish my works, where should I find?

      • I think that the “Global Impact Factor” is a completely bogus metric. No, I do not have a list of all the journals not on my list, sorry. I use these criteria for determining which publishers and standalone journals belong on the list. I am sorry — I do not have a list of journals that are not predators.

      • Dickson Mireku says:

        please check these two journals : International journal for Scientific Research and Publication and Journal of Biodiversity and Forestry Management. Are they good?

      • For the first one, I think you mean the International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. This is a standalone journal, and it is included on my list here. I recommend against submitting papers to this journal.

        The second one is published by SciTechnol, and imprint of OMICS Publishing Group, and I recommend that you not submit any papers to this journal or the others from this publisher.

      • Dickson Mireku says:

        can I know if this one too is a predatory one

        international journal for multidisciplinary research academy

      • Yes, this journal’s publisher, International Journals of Multidisciplinary Research Academy, is on my list here

      • Thanks for your understanding, but sorry for bothering.. do you think the journal with the title of: International Journal of English Literature and Culture. and ISSN: 2360-7831. is in the Predator list, since I could not find it in your list…

      • There are too many journals (thousands) for me to examine and list individually. Therefore, I complete my analyses at the publisher level and only list the publishers (There are some journals that are “standalone” or individual journals that are not a part of a publisher’s fleet of journals, so I have a separate list for these). In this case, I do have Academic Research Journals on my list, and I think that researchers should avoid all the journals they publish.

  203. obinna says:

    Hi Jeff.
    What is your take on Medcrave Group publishers. Can you advice me on their journal of lung, pulmonary & respiratory research. Thank you.

  204. Khan says:

    atest impact factors are released for scientific journals on 30th july 2014. But i couldn’t find the impact factor for ” International journal of photo energy” published by Hindawi. What that means ???. Is that journal has been removed from ISI master list???.I have published article in that journal………
    Please help me …I am very worried about that

  205. Khan says:

    Latest impact factors are released for scientific journals on 30th july 2014. But i couldn’t find the impact factor for ” International journal of photo energy” published by Hindawi. What that means ???. Is that journal has been removed from ISI master list???.I have published article in that journal………
    Please help me …I am very worried about that

  206. Khan says:

    Its 2012 impact factor was 2.66 by Thomson Reuters. But this year i could not found its impact factor. Will it still be listed in ISI master list??.
    Sorry for bothering you again. Actually i am very much worried about it.

  207. Andrea says:

    Thank you for this resource. I just found this website with a very long list of journals… not sure what to make of it?

  208. Setiyadi says:

    Dear Mr. Beall,

    I published an article in Journal of Language Teaching and Research ( this year and the journal is indexed in Scopus. When I tried to check in scimago list, I could not find it. Could you tell me why it is so? Thank you very much

  209. Tedd Binder says:

    Hi, Jeff! “International Journal of Electrochemical Science” has received a new impact factor in 2013 (1.956). Is it really a “predatory publisher”? Thanks,

  210. Mihaly Mezei says:

    There seems to be an other damage done by the predatory publishers. I am an editor for the recently started Computational Biology Journal published by Hindawi (not on the 2014 list). They have a nice website, offering a large number of possible reviewers with links to their publications. It turns out, however, that people refuse to review papers submitted to this journal. The last paper I handled was assigned to 10 reviewers, the only one who accepted the task was a fellow faculty member. I ended up being asked to make a decision based on a single review.

  211. Mutinta Muleya says:

    Dear Mr Beall, A friend of mine submitted a manuscript to one of the journals listed Asian Academic Research association, and in less than five days the paper was accepted for publication, how does this happen. Do they review the papers. I submitted to another journal call international Journal of African Nursing Sciences over a month ago and my paper is still under review.Why the difference

    • I don’t know the exact reason for the difference in the timing. If a publisher claims that it has completed a peer review of your paper in five days, I would be very suspicious.

  212. Shabbeer Hassan says:

    Heyya Jeff ! I am being told to consider Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health for my next publication. Is it a suspect? What is suspect however was that earlier it was managed by Savvy Publishers which does feature in your list. Please have a check and write back.

    • Elsevier publishes a journal called Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health.
      Savvy Science Publisher publishes a journal called Global Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health.
      The Elsevier journal is not on my list. Savvy Science Publisher, which is anything but savvy, is on my list. I recommend against submitting papers to journals whose publishers are on my list.

      • Shabbeer Hassan says:

        Thanks Jeff !! But the Elsevier journal has a strange editorial board list. I didn’t find any designations being listed along them. Do you think that’s suspicious?

      • Yup, the editorial board members are listed without any affiliations. This is non-standard and as you say, suspicious. Will you be submitting a paper to this journal?

      • Shabbeer says:

        Yeah its quite a non-standard practice not to mention the affiliations of editors. Right now, i have a paper for which i am the first author which one of the senior member in my lab is proposing to publish in Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health. But even the editor’s address seems suspect. If one does a google search on the chief editor, no such address pops out. I am in a quandary right now.

  213. Ashwin F C says:

    Kindly let us know if RED FLOWER PUBLICATION PRIVATE LIMITED, Delhi, India is a predatory journal publisher

    • Thanks for letting me know about this publisher, which I’ve added to my list. It has a very messy website, with most of the links dead, and an excessive number of grammatical errors, among other serious problems. I recommend finding a better publisher than this one.

  214. injpn says:

    Dear Mr. Beall. I have already submitted one of my hard worked article to a publisher in your list. Now I come to know of predation in academic publications. What should I do now? I worked 3 years on the article and my graduation depends on it.

  215. DM says:

    do let me know of IFRSA, who claims an impact factor of 2.545 and author notification after 10 days of submission.

    • I am assuming you mean the International Forum of Researchers Students and Academician (IFRSA). While I did not see any claims of such an impact factor or quick acceptance notification, I did find that the publisher meets the criteria for inclusion on my list, so I have added it. Its own name is ungrammatical.

  216. Benn says:

    Dear Beall, Is IGI Global a good publisher?

    • It is not an open-access publisher as far as I know, so in terms of my work analyzing OA publishers, it is out of my scope.
      However, to answer your question, I think it is a bottom-tier publisher.

  217. Limitha says:

    Will you please list out the best rating journals to publish my research article which would not be costly internationally and in india so that it would help my career

    • Kevin Black says:

      “Will you please list out the best rating journals to publish my research article which would not be costly internationally and in india so that it would help my career” — Seriously?? That is not Dr. Beall’s job. It’s mostly your job, and secondarily that of your mentor or other supervisor.

  218. DM says:

    Please Jeff,
    Please give us a list of A/B/C category journals with a special focus on Indian and management journals.

  219. Thao says:

    Thank you so much for the great work.
    I want to ask for your advice of submitting my paper to the Common Ground Publishing? many thanks.

  220. Mohammad says:

    Dear Jeffrey Beall,

    Generally speaking, your work and commitment is admirable. There exist some uncertainties about the list and selection criteria, however, as mentioned by others. As an example, could you please give your justification for inclusion of the “Universal Research Publications” in your list? I have not submitted there, but as far as I found, most of their journals have editorial board and make no charge on publication (as appeared from their author guidelines). Is it wrong or fake?

    Thanks a lot for your consideration.

    • I try not to use the terms fake or wrong to describe publishers. This one is typical of many questionable publishers. It launched with a large (over 50) fleet of broad-scope journals. Most of the journals represent disciplines already well-covered in the literature. Many questionable publishers do not charge at first, and they use the free articles to accumulate a mass of articles that then serve to attract submissions when the APCs are imposed. Researchers need to know which publishers to avoid, and I think this one offers little benefit to researchers with new research to share with other scholars. Why are you asking about this particular publisher?

      • Mohammad says:

        Thank you so much for the information and detailed explanations. About your ending question, I ran into this publisher during my paper readings. I can also agree that such a publisher is not a highly scientific or credible one. However, I think any recommendation against or in favor of a publication will be somehow case-dependent. In other words, not all researchers get to (or should) always publish in high ranked journals (e.g., in Science, Nature, ACS, etc.). There do are some works which are not so brilliant or massive, do not possess a very attractive topic, are not prepared by highly renowned authors (from the developing countries. e.g.), or cannot wait for a lengthy review process. In such cases, there should be some publishers or journals that more easily publish, but adhere to minimum standards. My question about this publisher was raised from such a point of view. In fact, I wondered if broad scope or repetitive theme are as inappropriate as a publication charge as an index for avoiding a specific publication or not. To sum up, I think it is inevitable that publishers and journals differ in their reviewing standards and also the review pace (ranging from 2 weeks to 2 years according to my observations).

        Many thanks.

  221. Dr D B NIKUMBH says:



    • For 1., this is not a publisher exactly; it is an aggregator. Therefore, it is not appropriate for inclusion on my list. It is a list of journals.

      For 2., the Journal of Medical Sciences and Clinical Research, this is published by a firm called IGM Publication, which is on my list so I recommend against submitting papers to it.

  222. Suzzane says:

    Hello Jeffery!
    Can you please recommend a journal on electronics and computer science (which is in science citation index list), that can take shorter time to review (say a month).
    Please help

  223. omar mohamed says:

    is The International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering (IJECSE) fake journal,
    they wrote in their site
    Call for paper – Last date for paper submission: 25th Aug 2014, Acceptance Notification: With in 7 to 20 working days., Publication Date: With in week after acceptance
    so 7-20 days only to review paper and accept it, so it’s fake or not??
    Thanks in advanced

    • I haven’t fully analyzed that journal, but this quick paper acceptance is very suspicious. Also, a quick look at their site shows they use bogus metrics and they also display logos from many organizations that they really have no connection with. I would advise, based on this, that you find a better journal for your work and avoid this journal.

  224. Abdul says:

    Kindly advise about the following Journals:
    Mycoses, Pharmacologia, Pharmacogosy Journal, Intent impact NDDS (www,, Indian J. Pharmacology, Asian J. Medical Sciences, Asian J. Pharmacological, Current Research J. Biological Sciences, J. Global Infectious Diseases, Global J. Molecular Sciences, Global J. Environmental Research, Global J. of Biotechology, and Biochemistry

  225. omar mohamed says:

    Thank a lot for your patient
    finally if you please tell me about this journal it’s fake or not
    and what is the acceptance time?

  226. DR NO says:

    I would like to publish an article in this journal. Is it a predatory journal?

    • Yes. This journal is published by the amateurish “Society of Education.” I recommend that you not submit your article to this journal or to the other two published by this “society.”

  227. M. N. Omar says:

    I have published several articles in these journals since 2007 but very sad when you included them in your predatory list 2014. I don’t know the reason why these journal are in your list. The journals are indexed in SCOPUS and Thomson ISI.

    • What was the peer review process like when you submitted your papers? Did they require revisions, or did they just accept the papers as is? How many citations have the papers received? Scopus and Thomson have different criteria than I have, and they also drop journals from their coverage (especially lately), so a journal included in their coverage may be gone tomorrow. The two journals you mention are Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences and Journal of Biological Sciences. Both journals cover the same topic and each has a broad coverage. How many other “biological sciences” journals does this publisher have? They have lots because they want to accept all papers and get money from as many authors as possible.

  228. Aliah says:

    Dear Jeffrey,

    My sister is going to publish the article on medicine. Her Department advised her this journal , because it has impact-factor, which our university likes so much. But the publication in this is not free and I am a bit worried about its reputations. Isn’t it fake or some kind of predatory journal, maybe it doesn’t have impact-factor in Thomson Reuters? Can we beleive them?

    Thank you very much!

    • Aliah, Congratulations to your sister! The FASEB Journal is a very respected journal. I would encourage her to complete the submission and publish the article. This is not a fake or predatory journal. You can believe them! Again, congratulations.

    • Dickson Mireku says:

      please find out for me the Associated Asian Research Foundation is a predatory Journal

      • I think that the Associated Asian Research Foundation is indeed a questionable publisher. It launched recently with ten new, broad journals. It promises a decision on your manuscript in three or six days (depending on which promise you read). It appears to have only a single editorial board for all the journals. I have added it to my list. I recommend against submitting papers to this publisher’s journals. Thanks for letting me know about it.

  229. Mussa says:

    Dear Beall,

    I was going to submit a paper to Business Perspectives (Investment Management and Financial Innovations) which is indexed by SCOPUS, but I saw the name of this publisher in your list. it means being indexed by SCOPUS does not necessarily mean that the journal is good, am I right?

    Thanks in advance,

  230. braa ogidi says:

    how about International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
    are they predatory or i can submit to them. thanks

  231. Michel says:

    Dear Jeffery Bell what about this journals?

  232. Thomas says:

    Why is The International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA) listed here? I’ve been to some of their conferences, and the organization/quality/fees was certainly comparable to other ACM conferences I’ve been.

  233. Victor Privalsky says:

    Is this a predator? – Sciences & Engineering Research Publication
    Thank you.

  234. Hi Bell, do you know about International Journal of advanced research?

  235. I have also received an invitation to publish with the journal
    but I dont know them much. Please help me know more about it.


  236. muafipaciran says:

    Hi Prof Beall,
    Whats your opinion about these journal;
    1. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management
    2. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research (AJBMR)

    I will be waiting for your information. Thank you very much.


  237. Gurminder says:

    Hello Sir, I am looking for status of Letters in applied Nanobioscience. Thanks very much

    • I recommend that you NOT submit papers to this journal; it has many problems. I would recommend that you find a better place to publish your work.

      I have added this journal to my list. Good luck.

  238. Suleiman Danladi says:

    Sir thank you for your help, please i want to send my paper for publication but i want to send it to good and standard please can you recommend one for me. also i want to know whether these two journals are standards or not Malaysian journal of pharmaceutical science and Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical science.
    thank you.

  239. M says:

    What abouth the journal “International Journal of Advanced Engineerig Research and Studies” (ISSN 2249 – 8974)

  240. Hi Bell, Please help me out to distinguish these two Journals:
    In your list, you have International Journal of Scientific Research but a friend wanted to send a paper to International Journal of Science and Research..Is the journal credible? Are the two journals one and the same thing? what is your advice about the latter?

  241. Andy says:

    Dear Jeff;
    I just received this e mail from ‘Aperito online Publishing’ inviting me to join the Editorial Board of the journal ‘ Pediatrics and Neonatal Care: Open Access Journal’.
    They have asked me to send my recent passport sized Photo; CV; Short Biography & Research interests, if I am interested.
    What do you know about this journal and the publisher? Are they predatory?
    Many thanks for your advice.

  242. Thanks Jeffrey… You have really enlightened us
    What about Croatian Journal of Fisheries?

  243. Mutie Kavila says:

    Dear Jeff,

    Is “International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics” in the list of predatory/questionable journals?

  244. Hi Mr. Beall,

    Thanks a ton for the input. I was not aware of the amount of corruption that existed amongst even scientific journals.

    It would be awfully kind of you if you could tell why AIRCC (Academy & Industry Research Collaboration Center) has a bad name. Also, are the journals published cited as scholarly journals or not ?

    This is my first time publishing (i’m an undergrad) but I would like to make sure my research is valued and further used by the scientific community

    Thanks again :)

  245. Dr D B NIKUMBH says:


    • Index Medicus was a print index to medical literature that stopped publishing in 2004. It is now essentially replaced by PubMed. PubMed is selective — it does not include all medical journals. Therefore, some look at a journal’s being included in PubMed as a mark of quality.

  246. Kwaku Ahenkora says:

    Could you provide me with information on the credibility of the following open access journals: International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics; International Journal of Business, Management and Economic Research. Thanks in advance

  247. Robert Stanton says:

    Dear Jeffery, firstly my sincere thanks for the wonderful work you do. I am sure your work is highly valued by the the acedemic community. Recently I have been invited to join the editorial team for a new journal; International Journal of Sports Medicine and Therapy , hosted by Journal Network. There are not on your list and have not yet received submissions. I wonder if you are familiar with he publisher and their credibility. Any assistance would be greatly appreciated

    • Robert, I searched this publisher’s URL in the Wayback Machine and found that it used to be used for a publisher called International Journal Network (IJN). I wrote a blog post about this former “resident” of this URL. So, is this new presentation a re-branding, a starting-over-from-scratch, or did they sell the URL to another firm that used it to start a new publisher? I will analyze if more fully as time permits. Given that the former publisher launched with 350 journals and this one looks like it’s starting with about as many, it’s reasonable to conclude that the owner is the same. In any event, I would recommend that scholars ignore any invitations they receive from this firm.

  248. rupesh says:

    can you tell me something about International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health

  249. Fred says:

    Sir, I’d like to ask: Is this journal authentic and reliable?

    I wish you would reply as soon as possible. Thanks a lot:.

  250. amit says:

    Dear Dr. Beall,
    I want to know whether the international journal of medical research and review is a predatory journal or not. Because this is not in your list. This journal has three more sister journals. Kindly tell me the same

    • I have not analyzed that journal, so I cannot say anything about it at this time.
      There are very many new, standalone mega-journals such as this one appearing all the time. I am unable to analyze the all. Try to submit your work to the best possible journal.

      • amit says:

        Thanks Dr.,
        I will submit my article to other journal originated from any established association or society. I have inquired about this journal as i am receiving mails from the journal to publish the article in their new journals

  251. Nino says:

    Dear Dr. Beall,

    I’ve submitted an article to International Journal of Humanities and Social Science –

    It has been accepted – I’ve been sent the reviewers’ report, I’ve paid the publication fee. I’ve been requested to do the final revision.

    Volume 4 No. 8 was due by August 20, 2014. However, it hasn’t appeared yet. I’ve been writing email to the Chief Editor Dr. J. Sabrina Mims-Cox; in vain though.

    Does it mean it’s a predatory and not an authentic journal?

    Could you please kindly reply as soon as possible?

    • Being late with a single issue does not make a publisher a predatory publisher.

      However, regarding the journal you mention, the International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, I am afraid that, in my opinion, this is a predatory journal. It is published by a firm with the name Center for Promoting Ideas, which is on my list here:

      • Enrique says:

        I have had the same bad experience with IJHSS: I’ve submitted an article in September 2013 and it was very quickly accepted, without modifications and full of compliments by two reviewers. I spent some months to write it on MS Word (the article was originally written in LaTeX). In May 2014 I made the transfer to this guy in Bangladesh, and since then…. Here I am waiting. I have been writing Mrs Mims-Cox every week and no reply at all (before paying she was very kind though). I searched and contacted some members of the so called “editorial board” and I had 3 replies: one of them told me he asked to remove his name from the editorial board one year ago and nothing happened; other told me IJHSS is not authentic and no one asked her consent to put her name there, other told me IJHSS is just a way to get money for some unscrupulos people. So, don’t submit to this journal!

  252. sam says:

    What about the indian journal named Paripex?

  253. NK says:

    Dear Jeffrey, Please take note of the journal “INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATION IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS (IJSIM)” Their website is: “” There are a lot of grammatical errors on their website. For Instance, check this: “ARTICLE PROSSECING FEE”. I believe this is another fake journal.

  254. SJN says:

    I would like to know if you have any idea regarding impact factor by SJIF. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) claims to have an sjif impact factor of 3.358. Is this legit? My paper has been accepted by IJSR and another by International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology. Are either of these scams?

    • That’s a fake impact factor. I recommend finding a better journal to publish in. If they’re lying about their impact factor, they’re probably lying about other things as well.

      • Rajiv Kumar says:

        Dear Sir

        What evidence you have against ijsr? We have one article published there and everything seems to be alright interms of their communication, article processing and overall experience.

      • Well, for one thing, prominent display of fake impact factors on their website. Can you please send me a copy of the peer review reports you received from this journal?

  255. ashley says:

    Can you please shed some light on the credibility of JOURNAL OF EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE AND HEALTHCARE

  256. ashley says:


    please advise.

  257. Kwaku Ahenkora says:

    Please find the urls of the journals I mentioned on the 1st of September

  258. […] that show the astronomical rise of predatory publishers. A lot of folks are already aware of this incredibly helpful list from CU Denver librarian Jeffrey Beall, but if you aren’t, it’s an excellent resource […]

  259. Andre Nel says:

    Hi Jeffery

    I am interested in the journals from the International Institute of Engineers. One of them is “International Journal of Computing, Communication and Instrumentation Engineering.” ( I cannot find it on the list but it appears from interaction to be quite problematic. I also see that IIE hosts a number of the classical “multi-conferences” that according to one of their flyers “After publication of Porceedings [sic] selected authors will be allowed to publish one extended paper in IIE Journals FREE of cost.” In itself given the poor reviewing of the conferences this makes publishing in the journals quite worrisome.

    Your thoughts?



  260. Jack Black says:

    Can anybody tell me about the credibility of following journal:
    International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics

  261. Vedrana Cemerin says:

    Today I got this e-mail, which I quote in full:
    “American Journal of Educational Research

    ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150

    Dear Vedrana Čemerin,

    This is American Journal of Educational Research, a peer-reviewed, open access journal that provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of educational research. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of educational research. And the Impact Factor for year 2013 is 1.2033.

    We are very interested in your paper named “Testing and Assessment in E-learning of English Language: the Case of the GAUDEAMUS Program at the University of Applied Sciences Velika Gorica, Croatia” in 6th Edition of the International Conference “ICT for Language Learning”, November 14-15, 2013, Italy.

    If the paper mentioned has not been published in other journals or if you have other unpublished papers, you can submit it to our journal through or papers are also welcomed.

    Editorial Positions

    As a peer-reviewed journal publisher, we also want to expand our Editorial Board and reviewer team member. There is no charge for publishing Editor’s articles. In recognition of reviewers’ support, any reviewer that returns a full review on time can receive a 30% discount on article processing charges for a paper for which they are the corresponding author. If you are interested in joining us as our Editorial Board Member / Reviewer, please send us your latest CV. We will evaluate your suitability and respond in due course.If you have no interest or no time in reviewing papers, would you please recommend your colleagues or team members to us? Thanks in advance.

    Aims and Scope:

    All areas related to educational research fields are covered under American Journal of Educational Research. Subject areas include, but are not limited to the following fields:

    Academic Advising and Counseling
    Art Education
    Adult Education
    Business Education
    Counselor Education
    Curriculum, Research and Development
    Distance Education
    Early Childhood Education
    Educational Administration
    Educational Foundations
    Educational Measurement and Evaluation
    Educational Psychology
    Educational Technology
    Education Policy and Leadership
    Elementary Education
    Health Education
    Higher Education
    Human Resource Development
    Kinesiology & Leisure Science
    Language Education
    Mathematics Education
    Music Education
    Reading Education
    Rural Education
    Science Education
    Secondary Education
    Social Studies Education
    Special Education
    Student Affairs
    Teacher Education
    Cross-disciplinary areas of Education
    History Education

    Article Processing Charges:

    Science and Education Publishing is an open access publisher. In an open access model, the publication costs of an article are paid from an author’s research budget, or by their supporting institution, in the form of Article Processing Charges. These Article Processing Charges replace subscription charges and allow publishers to make the full-text of every published article freely available to all interested readers. Article Processing Charges are only made if an article is accepted for publication (There are no submission fees or page charges).

    From 01/09/2014 to 31/10/2014, we offer discounts on the publication fee. The exact Article Processing Charges of SciEP journals are shown in the table below. For American Journal of Educational Research (ISSN 2327-6150), authors are asked to pay the publication fees according to the classification if the article is accepted for publication after peer-review and possible revision of the manuscript.


    Article Processing Charges

    Low-income economies – (88)


    Middle-income economies – (56)


    High-income economies – (72)


    The amount of article processing charges (APC) will be established in the yearly classification of the World Bank Economies of countries (i.e. Low income countries, Middle income countries and High Income countries). The specific classification could be found on the website at

    Indexed Databases:

    ● Google Scholar

    ● World Cat

    ● Universal Impact Factor (2013 = 1.2033)

    ● J-Gate

    ● CorssRef

    ● JournalTOCs

    ● AcademicKeys

    ● Academia

    ● Computer Literature Index

    ● Zeitschriftendatenbank (ZDB)

    ● Open Access Journals Search Engine

    ● Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek(EZB)

    ● Genamics Journal Seek

    ● Directory of Research Journals Indexing

    ● Index Copernicus

    Requirements for the Author:

    1. Manuscripts must be in Microsoft Word format only. Please prepare your paper according to the SciEP-template (click to download).

    2. Articles submitted should be written in English.

    3. Usually a complete manuscript should be no less than 5 pages and no more than 25 pages (10 pt, double-spaced, including figures, tables, and references).

    4. The title should be no more than 20 words in length.

    5. The abstract should be 200-300 words and 3-7 key words.

    Details can be found online at

    We warmly welcome your submission of original articles and joining our editorial team. Should you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to contact us.

    Thanks for your consideration. Looking forward to your reply.

    Best regards,

    Emma Taylor

    Editorial Office

    Science and Education Publishing (, USA

    I don’t see them on your list, but there are several things that look very fishy to me: a) they sent me the e-mail from a gmail account –, b) I have cancelled my attendance, so the article they are requesting has neither been presented at the conference nor published (nor written, btw :)) and c) as anyone who bothered to do a bit of research knows, selected papers from this conference are published in a volume of conference proceedings, and therefore are not available to be published elsewhere. They seem predatory to me.

  262. Henry says:

    Dear Jeffrey

    Thanks to your list we were able to prevent a publication from a staff member to a predatory journal in 2012.

    A colleague has asked my advice on publishing in the International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI) (157 on your second list). Now, thanks to you, we have again been able to easily detect and prevent a potentially embarrassing situation.

    Thank you for your contribution, greatly appreciated!


  263. Springer says:

    Dear Jeffrey
    I would like to submit my paper to one of Hindawi journals. Kindly advise.

  264. chudamani says:

    Dear jeffrey,
    I have submitted manuscript on journal of animal science advances by Global researchers journal and open journal of animal science by scientific publishing group ….. are they fake or genuine journals

  265. Kwara says:

    Dear Jeffrey, Can you please analyse the following journal:

    International Journal of Current Business and Social Sciences (ISSN 2312-5985):

    Thank you.

  266. Keith Fraser says:

    Do you have any information on the Journal of Advances in Physics ( )? Someone representing it has made a promotional post on a LinkedIn group I belong to and (more significantly) ‘liked’ several posts about incoherent pseudoscience. Thanks.

    • It’s published by a predatory publisher called Council for Innovative Research. I strongly recommend that you not submit any papers to it. The publisher is included on my list.

      • Keith Fraser says:

        I did eventually realize the publisher was on your list. I wasn’t planning on submitting anything to a journal that engages in spam-like behaviour, but it’s good to know my instincts weren’t wrong!

  267. farimah says:

    Dear Jeffrey,
    I have submitted manuscript on International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science. Can you tell me about the credibility of this journal, PLease.

  268. Marco says:

    I think you can add a new one to your list:

    Couldn’t help to give a funny example from their publication ethics:
    “All the submitted manuscripts should be written in Good English”
    followed by
    “Before the inclusion of a case details or images or patient images or personal details in the manuscript author must be obtained permission or an approval from the appropriate parties.”

    Contact me if you want an e-mail I received to become an Editor.

  269. farimah says:

    With Best Wishes

  270. Sethunath says:

    Dear Dr. Jeffrey, your lists of journals is really helpful. Thanks a lot for this compilation.

  271. Today I’ve received three different invitations from three different names to submit a ms to the American International Journal of Contemporary Research, published by an entity calling itself the Center for Promoting Ideas.

    However, thinking ahead to my retirement, I’m considering starting the Center for Thinking Thoughts, which will publish the open access International American Journal of Outdated Research (a home for all those old data people never published).

    Want to join me?

  272. OA says:

    Dear Dr. JB:
    Do you have a list of legitimate OA journals? This would be even more beneficial. Thank you.

  273. fred says:

    I would like to know if International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA), is fake or not.
    Thanks alot.

  274. OA says:

    Hello Dr. JB:
    Thanks for your response. My manuscript was recently accepted by the International Journal of Pharmacy–in fact I’m about to make the payment for the processing fee. I felt that I search them with diligence prior to submitting to them. To my surprise, I found them on your list. Could they have changed? Please advise on what to do at this point.
    Also, I received a request to submit a manuscript to the International Journal of Medicine and Pharmacy. I didn’t find the journal on your list, but the publisher was listed. —-how do you feel about that?

    • If the publisher is on my list, then I recommend that you not submit papers to all of the journals it publishes.

      Regarding your experience with the International Journal of Pharmacy, can you tell me what your peer review experience was like? Did they require that you make revisions to the paper, or did they just accept it with no changes?

  275. OA says:

    They had 2 revisions that they required prior to full acceptance. Namely, delineation of objectives and reformatting of references.

  276. OA says:

    Also, they requested the payment with via Western Union or transfer to their bank in india.

  277. […] information available on the internet. To counteract this trend Jeffrey Beall regularly updates a list of journals that are […]

  278. Jioe Wallach says:

    You may also want to check one called “Journal of Earth Science Research” Just got that one today, which automatically went straight into Spam.

  279. Ainiqz says:

    Dear Mr. Beall
    my colleague and I are planning to submit a paper to Scholar Academy Journal of Pharmacy which is published by SAS Publishers and i found that SASpublishers is on your list. the journal itself has an IC value ( do you think it is still unsafe for us to submit our paper to the SAJP?

  280. Chih How says:

    What about journal published by AICIT, Korea (Since 2005)? Url at

  281. CYG says:

    Do you mind if you can check these 2 journals?
    1. World journal of cardiology? (baishideng)
    2. Clinical Medicine Insights: Cardiology (libertas academia)
    If possible, I would like to know more about credibility the journals itself, and also the publishers.

    • Because there are so many individual journals, I perform my analyses at the publisher level whenever I can. For these two journals, neither publisher is on my list. I do however, receive many inquiries about each of these two publishers, an indication that some find them questionable.

  282. Rodger Hayes says:

    I have recently sent my work through to the IJHSS (published by CPI – listed as a predatory publisher). I found their “review” highly suspicious, as well as their request to send money to Bangladesh and their lack of a physical address, and my suspicions led me to your lists.

    Now they have my work, name, and contact info, but not my money. Should I still follow the standard procedure of withdrawal and inform them? Or am I better to cut all contact? How can I minimalize damage done at this point?

    Thank you for all your hard work. The criteria you found is extremely helpful to the academic community.

  283. Hello prof. please kindly provide us with the lists of authentic journals and publishers in agricultural sciences. Thanks

    • I’m sorry, I only list the questionable publishers.

      • Thanks Prof. Please advice us. we want to submit our ongoing manuscripts to the following journals:
        (1) Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics
        (2) Journal of agriculture and environmental sciences and

        Please we need your recommendation. Thanks

      • Summary: I recommend that you avoid submitting your work to all three of these journals. In each case the publisher is on my list.

        The Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics is published Academic Journals (Lagos), and this publisher is on my list. The Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences is published by the so-called American Research Institute for Policy Development, and this publisher is on my list. The Journal of Advances in Agriculture is published by the so-called Council For Innovative Research, and this publisher is on my list.

      • Tomasz Grzyb says:

        I’m not sure if you are aware that Council for Innovative Research calculates their own Impact factor –

        In my opinion it’s not only unethical – it should be illegal.

  284. […] Nunca publicar en las llamadas editoriales depredadoras,  editoriales que basan su modelo de negocio en la publicación de artículos pero sin ofrecer garantías mínimas. Se puede consultar un listado actualizado. […]

  285. Azin says:

    Dear Dr. Jeffrey
    Please inform me about the quality of this journal.
    Kind regards,

  286. Assem says:

    i sent two manuscripts to medcrave group and I want to withdrow I do not know how
    I sent more than 5 e mails to tell but no answer what to do?

  287. Hello Prof. Please Friends Science Publishers (JASS) are they genuine?

  288. also journal of economics and development studies

    • There is a journal with this title published by the American Research Institute for Policy Development. This publisher is on my list, and I recommend against submitting work to all the journals they publish.

    • David Person says:

      The address of the American Research Institute of Policy Development has now changed. For a great laugh, google the new address and switch to street view. This pleasant 2-bedroom shanty is the ARIPD global headquarters…

      And the website is still filled with plagiarized passages. The opening “research” program passage is lifted word-for-word from the website (possibly from the same scammers?)

  289. Raj says:

    How about this-
    ADMET & DMPK (ISSN:1848-7718) is an international, peer reviewed open-access Journal aiming for rapid dissemination of orginal research articles, review papers and comments in the broad areas of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicology and pharmacokinetics of drugs. The emphasis is on rapid publishing of articles of high scientific quality and make them freely available to researchers worldwide.

    • Not sure. I have added this one to my backlog. I am unable to analyze it at this time. What is your opinion of it? How did you hear about it?

      • Raj says:

        BY EMAIL – I get bombarded at the rate of at least one a day – I have never submitted to solicitations (except for one to the Nature group for THEIR highlights), and intend NEVER to – HOWEVER I AM KEEN TO CONTRIBUTE TO YOUR LIST for the benefit of others, as I have seen many succumb to email solicitations. I always check to see if the soliciting journals/ groups are on your list JUST TO ADD THEM TO YOUR LISTS, in case they haven’t.

  290. Mars says:

    Hi Jeff!
    i read in your above communication that is not predatory. well! my query is that is it right to submit my paper in any of the AICIT journal?

    • It is not predatory, but it is borderline. However, I don’t add the borderline ones to my list. I would recommend that you try to find a better and stronger publisher than this one if possible.

  291. maria says:

    this journal is in your list, may i know why?

    • When I analyzed it, I found plagiarism in the published articles.
      They use a New York and London address but are really based in India.
      At one time, the advertised a bogus impact factor. There are many problems with this publisher.

  292. Kunal says:

    Hi! I submitted my paper to ICNIT 2014 conference organised by IACSIT on 10 Sept 2014. On 2 Oct I got the mail for acceptance stating only changes in references and format, given the fact that my paper has a mistake in results section (found later). What to do now? IACSIT is on your list of predatory publishers. Please guide me what shall I do next? Shall I ask for withdrawal of my paper? Will there be any problem if I ask for withdrawal? Please help.

    • Yes, I recommend that you ask that your paper be withdrawn. Explain the problem to the publisher. Unfortunately, the predatory publishers do not act according to ethical standards, so this may be a difficult situation.