Misleading Metrics

This is a list of questionable companies that purport to provide valid scholarly metrics at the researcher, article, or journal level.

Last updated: July 18, 2016

Criteria for Determining Misleading Metrics

  1. The website for the metric is nontransparent and provides little information about itself such as location, management team and its experience, other company information, and the like
  2. The company charges journals for inclusion in the list.
  3. The values (scores) for most or all of the journals on the list increase each year.
  4. The company uses Google Scholar as its database for calculating metrics (Google Scholar does not screen for quality and indexes predatory journals)
  5. The metric uses the term “impact factor” in its name.
  6. The methodology for calculating the value is contrived, unscientific, or unoriginal.
  7. The company exists solely for the purpose of earning money from questionable journals that use the gold open-access model. The company charges the journals and assigns them a value, and then the journals use the number to help increase article submissions and therefore revenue. Alternatively, the company exists as a front for an existing publisher and assigns values to that publisher’s journals.

121 Responses to Misleading Metrics

  1. Please leave comments that will help me improve this page. Thanks.

    • Thank you very much Jeffrey Beall sir for opening this blog.

      Dear Sir

      Directory of Journal Quality Factor is probably bogus agency for evaluation of Journals, its prime aim is to earn money.

      Some major concerns are given below:

      They write on their website that evaluation on journals is performed by factors like Journal Quality, Author’s Contribution, Publisher quality, Technical Quality, Manuscript Quality, and standard quality but I can’t find any well defined formula or criterion for assessment of journal on their website (only name of criteria is given, not detailed are given).

      They proposed some credit based system in which just 4 point is given to author’s contribution out of 22.

      They do not give credit to significant scholarly results and finding published by journals.

      No editorial member lists are available on website having educational backgrounds relevant to their areas of responsibility.

      It seems that they do not know basic publishing standards and COPE.

      Owner admits that they are not registered.

    • nforbawe says:

      WOAH!!! JPEE used point 6 above when I asked them about their impact factor!!!

    • Islary says:

      What about cosmos impact factor thing?

    • weifenghan says:

      Hi Jefferey,

      I want to report two identity stealing journals: the International Journal of Current Medical and Pharmaceutical Research (which is now included in your list) and International Journal of Current Medical Sciences (which is not listed as an predatory journal) . They listed Dr. Weifeng Han-me (Flinders University, South Australia) as a member of editorial board, which I never agreed with. I have no direct or indirect relation with these two journals. I have not, and will not, authorize these two journals or its publisher to invite any author to publish in these two journals.

      Related information can be found through the following links:
      http://journalcmpr.com/editorial-board
      http://sjifactor.com/passport.php?id=18579
      http://www.journals.indexcopernicus.com/International+Journal+of+Current+Medical+Sciences,p3729,3.html
      http://journalijcmes.com/editorial-board

      I contacted them earlier and asked them to stop using my identity. But they did not seem to intend to do so. Do you have any good advice on such weirdness?

      Thanks!

      Weifeng

      • Thanks for sharing this information. I just added the International Journal of Current Medical Sciences to my list here. It is often difficult to get what are essentially criminal organizations to remove names from their websites. You may try a letter from an attorney. It is difficult to work with firms that are bogus, such as these publishers.

      • weifenghan says:

        Thank you very Jeffrey! These bogus journals/publishers are really annoying. There is not much we can do, I’m afraid.

  2. Professor Jeffrey Beall, We respect you but you never understand this. We are not interested in earning money professor. You are please join with us. we will good one to the world and also we are properly get registered. with regards thiyagu – Directory of Journal quality factor

  3. Professor Liam Mac Liam, Please understand that we have started DJQF on 2014 and our calculating metric will be published on June’2014 and will include in that page (http://www.qualityfactor.org/report.html). So, really sorry for the inconvenience. Please check after July’2014 page will be included.

  4. Alex SL says:

    This is a good addition to the site but I am wondering about criteria 2, 3 and 5 because they also apply to Thompson Reuters. And yes, correct me if I am wrong, but that appears to include criterion 3.

    As long as more journals have themselves added to Web of Science each year, it is a logical necessity that most scores go up even if the actual number of citations doesn’t change, for the simple reason that only citations in those journals that are part of the list are counted to calculate the scores for the journals on the list. There is no cheating involved, it is just the mechanics of how the scores are calculated, and they will stop increasing once the number of journals on the list plateaus.

    It is thus hard to use this criterion to identify predatory ranking providers.

  5. […] terapeutica e spirulina che… – che fine ha fatto questa? – ha iniziato una lista delle metriche raccomandate agli stessi di prima. Tanto più se desiderano che una povera pensionata riconosca […]

  6. Abhishek Rai says:

    Here is another. Please check http://www.impactfactorjournals.com

  7. Khabri Lal says:

    Another one to be added http://www.infobaseindex.com. Sir, please check.

  8. MK says:

    I believe I have another (via an OMICS journal I was invited to review for): General Impact Factor http://generalimpactfactor.com/

  9. […] (https://scholarlyoa.com/individual-journals/), and the newer list of exploitative metric indexes (https://scholarlyoa.com/other-pages/misleading-metrics/). These are essential resources, particularly useful when conventional publishers conflate known […]

  10. […] now publish a list of questionable companies that supply impact factors to journals. As in the image above, journals […]

  11. Adakole Abu says:

    What is status of African journal of biotechnology and journal of medicinal plants research?

  12. […] of deception. This is where the counterfeit industry fills the gaps. In fact, Beall now has a list of misleading metrics with a dozen or so impostors to the Impact Factor, many of which will sell you a number if you want […]

  13. George says:

    Dear pofessor, please take a look;
    it is very suspicious:

    American Standards for Journals and Research (ASJR)
    at http://www.journal-metrics.com/

  14. […] Det finns en lista över sidor som sysslar med vilseledande bibliometri. […]

  15. […] There is a list of pages dealing with misleadning metrics. […]

  16. Faten says:

    Can you recommend companies that provide reliable scholraly metrics?

    Also could you please clarify the difference between Potential, possible, or probable predatory publishers, for instance a potential or possible would not have same detrimental effects as if confirmed?
    Many thanks

    • I limit my work here to listing the bogus metrics companies. I don’t want to create a list of good ones.
      I recommend avoiding all the publishers and journals included on my lists.

      • Jason says:

        And why is that, Jeff? Why is it easy for you to find predatory journals, publishers, and bogus metrics companies but you have no time to provide the list of good ones? This seem to confirm the suspicion that many people in Asia have about your intent.

  17. Paul Jenkins says:

    Thanks Jeffrey. Untill today I was under the impression that IndexCopernicus was a legitimate organization. You make me aware of the fact that provinding misleading metrics is a business that makes money instead of helping anyone out.

    • DC says:

      The opening line of their website is a good tip off:

      “…the IC Journal Master List – contains currently over 13,000 journals from all over the world, including 1200 journals form Poland”

      10% are “form Poland”…although I respect work from Poland, if 10% of the world’s most respected journals come from Poland, I’ve been publishing in the wrong country

      • Jane Doe says:

        The IC managed to get a contract to maintain technical side of Polish research assesment exercise. So many Polish publishers consider it a government endorsed & thus respectable index.

      • John Doe says:

        @Jane Doe

        >The IC managed to get a contract to maintain technical side of
        >Polish research assesment exercise. So many Polish
        >publishers consider it a government endorsed & thus
        >respectable index.

        so shame on your govt.

    • Aachenac says:

      Hi,
      Please refer to my extended commentary on IC under https://scholarlyoa.com/2013/11/21/index-copernicus-has-no-value/.

    • Have another go says:

      I am a bit puzzled by its inclusion in this list. The only criterion that it meets with certainty is charging for inclusion. Other than that, you could fault it on 3 other criteria at the most, if you interpret them unfavourably, but then again Thomson Reuters 2-year Impact Factor also gets 4 out of 7 on this intepretation (as pointed out above). Any comments, Jeffrey?

      • Have another go says:

        Self-correction: it turns out that IC does not normally charge for inclusion, only for expediting the process.

  18. Rob Lopresti says:

    Jeff-
    Any thoughts on this one: http://www.impactfactorsearch.com/

  19. JToth says:

    Hi,

    please could you look at this website and give us some thoughts about this indexing(?) service?

    “Directory of Research Journal Indexing” http://www.drji.org

    They have their own metric (DRJI value), though i would be more curious about whether they are a legitimate abstracting/indexing service or just another attempt to find alternatives for journal reputation management.

  20. […] Here there are two excellent lists of journals not to be trusted and publishers with questionable practices (lists have respectable 507 and 693 entries). Ideally, one should think twice before submitting to any of the journals/publishers in these lists. Also there is a list for misleading journal metrics. […]

  21. Mary white says:

    Hi Jeffrey, I be interested in your thoughts about this journal Journal of Skin and Stem Cell, as they are pursuing one of our researchers. Their web site is http://journalssc.com/?page=home . Thanks

    • Hi, Mary, This appears to be a new (to me) publisher called Kowsar. I need to give it a full analysis, and this could take me up to several days. My first impression is not positive, so please tell you colleague to proceed with extreme caution. If possible, can you forward me the spam email she received? jeffrey.beall@ucdenver.edu Thanks.

      • Ferran says:

        I have also received an invitation from this Journal. Have you find out something else about this journal/publisher?

  22. Mary White says:

    Thanks Jeff. I will forward the email. I too was not impressed with this publisher. We appreciate your opinions regarding the publisher.

  23. Mahmoud Buazzi says:

    Thanks Mr. Beall.
    Where can I find a credible and reputable source of impact factor?

    • The impact factors are published in a proprietary (costs money) product called Journal Citation Reports. I recommend that you check with your librarian to see if your university has access.

  24. LAOcampo says:

    Dear Sir,

    Please correct me if I’m wrong. The Directory of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) was included in your list of misleading metrics last year.But I could not find it anymore in your current list. Did I miss something?

    Thanks.

  25. AlexH says:

    Citefactor’s webpage says “This Account Has Been Suspended”

  26. […] stay solvent, or establish credibility and legitimacy, all while maintaining or improving quality. Questionable “impact factor” platforms have proliferated, most of which appear to be based in and/or targeting developing nations. At best, these sites are […]

  27. Dear Mr Beall,

    Asian Journal of Traditional Medicines ISSB 1817-4337

    http://www.journal-data.com/journal/asian-journal-of-traditional-medicines.html

    it’s not in any predatory list of journals,publishers or misleading and doesn’t even have any impact factor kindly update its status

  28. […] Mais fácil foi identificar que as revistas estão listadas na “black list” organizada pelo Prof. Jeffrey Beall (Aqui). Além disso, a medida de fator de impacto pelo qual as revistas estaria sendo avaliadas, o “Technical Impact Factor“)  também já foi denunciado pelo Prof. Beall como sendo um dos muitos fatores de impacto piratas que circulam no mercado das revistas predatórias (Aqui!). […]

  29. […] Beall nos alerta de un listado de páginas fraudulentas (36 en total) que generan métricas de impacto a las revistas, y que en muchos casos […]

  30. […] Beall nos alerta de un listado de páginas fraudulentas (36 en total) que generan métricas de impacto a las revistas, y que en muchos casos […]

  31. Dr Ayo Gbadeyan says:

    Prof, help by providing us list of non – predatory, good and high ranking reputable journals. Thank you for the sanity you have brought to Academic Publishing and Scholarship

  32. Dr. Mohammed Al-Wateeri says:

    Dear Prof. Jeffrey Beall

    I wounder on the criteria by which you listed the ISI of Thomson Reuters in the Misleading Metrics List. We know that most of ISI journals are reputed and they only use the ISI database for calculation of the citation of publication. However, some metrics which account the publication and citation of the papers published by predatory publishers are not appearing in this list.

    Thanking you

  33. noorulain says:

    dear Beall sir,

    have a look at this journal “INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY 1811-7775”
    included in journal citation index list Thompson reuters web page in 2014 simultaneously in predator publisher list as well kindly look this journal and give your final word

    • Right, I think Thomson Reuters is making a mistake if they are conveying any mark of legitimacy to this journal. I recommend that researchers avoid all journals from Science Alert and/or Asian Network for Scientific Information (ANSI).

  34. Mac says:

    Can you throw some light on international journal of scientific and engineering research (www.ijser.org), plz?

  35. Ugnius says:

    Dear Jeffrey Beall!
    Are these databases/indexes/archives legit?
    http://contemporaryscienceassociation.net/journal/list
    Is Contemporary Science Association a serious organization?
    http://contemporaryscienceassociation.net/

  36. epg says:

    Dear Prof. Beall,
    What can you say about “The International Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Learning” of Common Ground CG Publisher? http://ijlsmtl.cgpublisher.com/

    Is it a predatory journal/publisher? Thanks.

    • Common Ground, the publisher, is out of scope for my work because it’s not an open-access publisher. However, I receive many inquiries about it, an indication to me that researchers find it questionable.

  37. amira says:

    What about. Scientific journal impact factor SJIF?

  38. Borhan says:

    Dr Beall, what about this journal :

    E-Health Telecommunication Systems and Networks

    ISSN Print: 2167-9517

    ISSN Online: 2167-9525
    Thanks

    • This journal is from the Chinese publisher SCIRP (Scientific Research Publishing) one of the largest publishers of junk science in the world. All honest researchers should not submit papers to this low-quality, junk publisher.

  39. ss says:

    Sir,
    I would like your comment on these journals as they didn’t appeared in your list of fake journals:

    An international Sholarly Research Journal
    http://srjis.com/
    and
    international Journal of Multidimension Research
    http://ijmr.net.in/

    • The first journal you list is published by a firm called “Scholarly Research Journal’s.” I have this publisher included on my list of publishers and recommend you not submit any papers to it.

      Same situation for the second one — it’s publisher, International Journals of Multi Dimensional Research, is also on my list. Please always determine the publisher and look for the publisher on the publisher list here.

      • ss says:

        Thanks sir. But i could see there are papers of professors and associate professors in them. A tricky situation, indeed.

  40. drmohammed012 says:

    Dear Prof. Jeffrey Beall

    What is your comments on the Institute for Science Information metric that has the closest name to the ISI of Thomson Reuters and its web address is “http://isithomsonreuters.org/journal”

    Thanking you

    • That is a deceitful and bogus organization. I have it included in my list of fake metrics companies here. I recommend that researchers avoid all journals that have impact factors given by this fake company.

  41. Sudha says:

    Dear Prof. Jeffry Beall,

    What are your comments on Asian Journal of Neurosciences published by Hindawi? http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ajn/ai/. I have not been able to trace it among the predatory journals / able to find the IF for this journal. Kindly advise.

    Dr. Das

  42. Ferdinal Asmin says:

    Dear Prof. Jeffrey Beall

    What are your comments on International Journal of Social Sciences published by GRDS Publishing? http://grdspublishing.org/PEOPLE/people.html. I have not been able to trace it among the predatory journals / able to find the IF for this journal. Kindly advise.

    Ferdinal Asmin

  43. Dear Jeffrey,

    What are your comments on “Orbital: The Electronic Journal of Chemistry”. I am intending sending a manuscript to the journal. The journal homepage is http://www.orbi tal .ufms.br

    • This journal is not on my list at this time. It has some weaknesses. It uses a fake impact factor, yet it explains that the metric is not the authentic one. So, I would individually recommend that you find a stronger and better managed journal for your work.

  44. Dr. Emmanuel Arisi-Nwugballa says:

    Hi Prof. Beall. I am completely confused and worried regarding where to publish, given your list of predatory journals. Could you pls, as a personal favour, send me a list of credible online journals in business and management. You may pls send it to my e-mail if it is against your policy to publicly publish it. Thanks in earnest anticipation. Best wishes. Emmanuel.

    • I’m sorry; I limit my work to identifying low-quality and predatory journals and publishers and do not compile any list of credible online journals. I recommend you speak to senior colleagues in your field and at your institution, an also read widely in your field to familiarize yourself with the top journals. Good luck.

  45. Adriana A says:

    Hi Prof. Beall. What are your comments on Contemporary Sociological Global Review, the home page is http://www.csgr.syllabapress.us/index.html
    Thank you very much.

  46. Wilberforce Jahonga says:

    Is your criteria of assessment similar especially for upcoming journals in developing countries? Do we have lower standards based on level of research?

  47. […] Beall nos alerta de un listado de páginas fraudulentas (36 en total) que generan métricas de impacto a las revistas, y que en muchos casos […]

  48. […] Beall nos alerta de un listado de páginas fraudulentas (36 en total) que generan métricas de impacto a las revistas, y que en muchos casos […]

  49. Nandita says:

    Research Journal Impact Factor (RJIF)
    http://www.rjifactor.com

    Please check this out.

  50. Nandita says:

    http://www.biotechjournals.com
    International journal of biology research

    Please comment regarding predator / not predator status of above journal.

  51. Bonet Kamwana says:

    What is APS Impact Factor? I have seen this on European American Journals. http://www.eajournals.org/journals/international-journal-of-developing-and-emerging-economies-ijdee/

  52. S Ramasamy says:

    i would like to know the following journal is predatory or not
    ISSN 0970-938X
    Biomedical Research
    An International Journal of Medical Sciences

  53. Sylvester Fernandes says:

    Can you please comment on Otolaryngology:Open Access
    an OMICS publication

  54. […] 2014) [3] Ravi Murugesan For open access. Against deception (23 September 2014) [4] Jeffrey Beall Misleading metrics (Scholarly Open Access, updated regularly) [5] The impact factor game. (PLOS Medicine, 2006) [6] […]

  55. Hallo again prof. Beall’s..Im from Indonesia. Can you please comment on IJSBAR :Open Access an GSSRR publication. is this good ?? many of my friends wrote there

  56. Damodar says:

    Hello Prof. Beall, how do you grade the Journal of Crop Improvement by Taylor and Francis? Waiting your reply.

  57. Dear J. Beall!

    Today I have receive an email from the new research metric company. It seems to be a misleading metrics company. Please, check it!

    The message body is below:

    ________________________________________

    Root Society for Indexing and Impact Factor Service (rootindexing.com) is a society to provide indexing to all types of online and offline journals to get international visibility of research and also provide impact factor (RIF-Root Impact Factor) to the journal to decide journal visibility in the world of research.
    Aims and Scope :
    · Its Purpose is to increase visibility of indexed journal to International and national level Researcher.
    · To get more audience using Social media popularity.
    https://web.facebook.com/rootindexing
    http://rootindexing.blogspot.com
    https://plus.google.com/110707503052812740015/
    https://twitter.com/rootindexing
    · To provide a better platform to new and emerging publishers, researchers and readers.
    · All Categories of Scientific and Scholarly Journals can be indexed in Root Society for Indexing and Impact Factor Service (rootindexing.com).
    Index Your Journal for Free Now…!!!!!!
    Ignore if you have already indexed your journal.
    ——
    Editor
    Root Society for Indexing and Impact Factor Service
    http://www.rootindexing.com
    editor@rootindexing.com, rootindexing@gmail.com
    _________________________________________

    Thank you for your brilliance work!

    Yury I. Philippov, MD
    Endocrinology Research Centre (Moscow)

  58. Dr. Niazi says:

    Hi, This journal tries to confuse authors by listing a new criteria (Thomson Reuters ID), which is just a researcher ID (not indexing). Also, I believe the journal is not in your list. We have received a couple of spoofed emails from this journal using a Fake conference system (Easychair.com rather than Easychair.org). The email was a carbon copy of my own email which I sent to accepted authors in the conference (except with the name of this journal added) http://www.astesj.com/about-journal/indexing/

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