Jeffrey Beall’s Writing and Research on Scholarly Open-Access Publishing

1. Reviews in The Charleston Advisor:

2. Opinion Pieces and Scholarly Articles

3. Interviews

4. Quotations in newspaper and magazine articles

Last updated September 2, 2016

167 Responses to Research

  1. Guria says:

    Thank you very much for your wonderfully helpful information.

    I’m sorry if this is not the right place to leave a question. I wonder why Eurojournal is on the list. Some of its journals-e.g.European Journal of Social Sciences-are indexed by Scopus and SJRscimago. Isn’t that enough a guarantee that these journals have peer reviewers?

    I was told by those who published in these journals that their papers were accepted so very easily though. They said they didn’t have to make any change.

    Thank you very much again.

    • Well, you partially answered your own question.

      Also, being indexed by Scoups (and covered by Scimago) is not really a measure of quality. These services are in competition with others, so they try to include more journals in their coverage. They whey they go to sell their products, they can say that they have a greater coverage than their competitors do.

      • Dear Mr. Beall,

        I am one of the editorial board of Med J Indones. Our journal is now more than 20 years, but maybe not old enough for a journal. We used external reviewers, who are expert in the field to assess the content of the articles. We also have editors, who work hard to edit the articles. However, we have not succeeded yet to be listed in scopus and Pubmed. According to Scopus, our articles are weak. We are very sad to hear that.Therefore, in my opinion, a journal that is already listed in scopus must have a better quality than ours, apart from the fact that it charges the authors a lot.

        If Scopus is really as you said:”they try to include more journals in their coverage”, why did Scopus refuse to list our journal? In my opinion, Scopus has a standard to be passed by the journals, and journals that are listed is Scopus have passed the standard.

        The fact that the papers are easily accepted, it might be that the articles are of good quality.

        Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan

      • Bekir says:

        Mr. Jeffrey, What is your opinion about “Journal of Education and Practice” this journal is indexed in ERIC – ERIC: Institute of Education Sciences? Thanks for explications.

      • I recommend avoiding ALL the IISTE journals. This publisher is included on my list.

    • Paula Benevene says:

      European Journal of Social Science is no longer indexed in SCOPUS since August 2012. This is the reply I got from SCOPUS. I published a paper in this journal on the premise it woulld be open access, indexed in SCOPUS and now is no longer so, without any explanations from the editorial board, to whom I wrote several times

  2. Guria says:

    Thank you very much for your reply and explanation. It’s a great help.

  3. sivaforums says:

    How about this article about Bentham Online Publishing where you worked.

  4. Jeorge Lewis says:

    Plz consider the evaluation of the journal “International Journal of Energy & Technology”
    According to your criteria along with my own experience, it is far more than a predatory

    • I see some problems with this journal. There is no real “contact us” page that gives information about who the publishers really are. I also found serious plagiarism in the first article I examined. The journal tries to make it look like it’s published in the EU, but I doubt that is really the case, and they are intransparent about to the true location. I will investigate further, thanks.

  5. Fathollah Bistouni says:

    Mr. Jeffrey, What is your opinion about the International journal of research in computer science ( Please explain

    • It’s on my list. If you look at the journal’s main page, you see dozens of logos at the bottom, and the journals says at the top of them, “Indexed in.” This is a bad start, because most of them are services that do not index journal articles. It also claims affiliations, suspiciously, with universities such as Harvard and Cornell. The site has contradictory licensing information, having both copyright statements as well as CC BY statements. Indeed, the journal requires copyright transfer from authors but has CC BY licenses. The journal charges different APCs depending on nationality. It claims to be an “international” journal but the editorial board and papers are dominated by Indians. Other blogs have found problems as well. See:

  6. Fathollah Bistouni says:

    Mr.Jeffrey seems to suspect journal of International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer Technology(, And should be entered in the blacklist. What is your opinion about it?

  7. ching says:

    hi Mr. Jeerey, have a nice time,,,,,,
    could you please help me to recognize this two journals, because i got something amazing shared with them,
    i got this paper((Foundation of Vortex Gravitation, Cosmology and Cosmogony Abstract)).Sergey Orlov in IJET( in October 2011 issue??? and at the same time you publish it at IJST( IN VOLUME 1 January2012!!!
    please as soon as you got my emmil.
    kind regards

    • Yes, this appears to be a type of duplicate publication, except that in the second case, we see the article in the second journal’s table of contents but don’t see the actual content.

      Also, the author appears to have self-published the article as a book, and it’s available on Amazon.

  8. ching says:

    one more help please regarding the International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology (ISSN : 2277-1581).
    how reality is?

  9. ching says:

    thank you so much Dr. Jeffrey
    for your early and helpful reply, but which journal is in your list? for i have checked carefully and did not find it, that is why i asked about.
    please try to reply me as soon as still 2 days of deadline submission.
    if you do not mind, through your experience could you please help us of giving Scopus or ISI good journals which is not very hard of publication.
    your cooperation and concern are highly appreciated in advance
    best regards

    • No, that journal is currently not on my list. This is the first I’ve heard of it. I will analyze it.

      If you have excellent, innovative and influential research, then it is easy to publish in any ISI or Scopus journal.

  10. ching says:

    i am really confusing
    i have check Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences which is in your list? in fact the journal has Strange information!!! which is located in Pakistan and all staff from Pakistan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Iran and Egypt, and most more stranger is the contact information is in Amman, Jordan, and the more hard to understand is remain covered by Scopus till this moment!!!!!!!

    • It’s possible that they claim to have their content indexed in Scopus when in fact Scopus has never even heard of the journal. Don’t believe what you read on some publisher’s websites.

      • ching says:

        yes Dr. Jeffrey i am agree with you, but the problem i have checked this journal in Scopus website with ISSN:1991-8178
        and i saw it is indexed?

      • I will be adding IJSET to my list regardless of whether it’s indexed in Scopus. My criteria are not the same as theirs.

  11. sudarsono says:

    Jeff would you please to inform us about Human Resources Management Research published by Scientific and Academic Publishing? Thank you

  12. sudarsono says:

    SAP is a new publisher, so it is fair I think that there are some journals published by this publisher are still in a growing phase? Moreover, how is the status of your analysis with regard to the official standard imposed by some institutions?

  13. Keis Ohtsuka says:

    Dear Jeff,

    Thank you for your informative blog. I think I stumbled into another predatory journal.

    International Journal of Education and Research

    Many things do not add up.

    1.The journal covers social sciences to environmental science to business to almost anything..

    2. By the look of their CVs, Editorial Board Members are not really qualified to review a wide rang of topics the journal is to publish..

    3, Contemporary Research Center, Australia ( which has no contact information is purported to publish the above journal. By the way, we normally spell the word, “Centre” in Australia (just as they do in Canada.)

    4. Chief Editor: Dr Gary Genosko is listed as Professor of Education, Victoria University, Australia. I happened to work at Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia (there is only one in Australia) and has no record of a Dr Genosko ever worked here.

    5. The journal editorial office address is 103 Carrington Street, Adelaide SA 5000. Google map ground view shows an ordinary semi-detached house in this address. No signage.

    6. Is the journal named deliberately as it is very similar to a well known established journal – International Journal of Educational Research?

    7. The journal publishes over 20 articles each month. The deadline for submission is only 30 days before and peer-review is conducted.

    • Thank you for this information and for your excellent analysis. I also did an analysis and have decided to add the publisher CRC Australia, to my list. Much appreciated.

      • Mrs Nasheed Jafri says:

        Dear Mr Beall,
        I had been waiting for the past two weeks for a reply from this so-called journal – IJERN after having sent my article. I discovered your website and its useful information only today. I am worried about the misuse of my article. I am the sole author and I wouldn’t want any one else using it for their own benefit. Could you please advise?
        Many thanks,

      • This journal is published by the Contemporary Research Center Australia, a publisher that is on my list. I recommend that you withdraw you article from this publisher (by telling them that you want to withdraw it) and find a better publisher.

  14. Yehuda Klein says:

    Sage Open covers pretty much everything. But AFAIK, they are legit. Thoughts?

  15. Mohammad says:

    Dear Sir, I have recently seen that you put “international journal of applied linguistics and English Literature” on your list. May I know why? You mean it is not a respected and prestigious journal?? Is it a fake one?


  16. Alisha says:

    I have published a lot in few of these journals , which are based in india , as i had to send money through western union to india as publication charges, i feel really dejected at the moment as i regarded these as fair publications , does having published in these journals have an impact on my profile as a researcher?

  17. Alisha says:

    Pleade also let me know about AJOL journals? and anout African journal of pharmacy and pharmacology please?

  18. Carlos Telleria says:

    Can you please let me know if Libertas Academica is or was in your list? I just published a paper there and the review process did not appear abnormal. I was even contacted by the editor of the journal. My concern is that my science is NIH funded and wonder whether NIH will publish the article in PubMed Central as the journal is normally not appearing in PubMed.

  19. Walter Mead says:

    I presented a paper at a professional conference and several months later (a few days ago) received an e-mail from Lauren Jackson, Production Editor for Taylor and Francis, LLC, asking for my permission to allow for free publication of the paper in an on-line journal titled “VPPS Perspectives on Political Science.” There was no identification of an editorial board, but an address was provided for Taylor and Francis, LLC: 325 Chestnut Street, Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. I gave my permission, granting T&F an “assignment of copyright.” Receiving no request for making any stylistic corrections or revisions, I was immediately informed that the paper “is currently in production” and that, although not required, I could provide for Open Access, and that this “service [would] require registration with Rightslink and payment of a fee.” Although this journal title is not listed among your suspect-journals and II am not interested in granting any further permission to Taylor and Francis, LLC, I am curious whether this journal has previously been called to your attention and, if so, your opinion of it.

    • Is the journal claiming to be peer-reviewed? Did you agree to this publication, perhaps without realizing it, when you registered for the conference? I have not received any inquires about this journal before. It appears this is a hybrid (OA and non-OA mixed together) journal. This is common. Most choose not to pay the fee, so the paper will be behind a paywall.

  20. Keavin Jing says:

    Dear Jeff,

    My PI recently recieved an invitation to write a chapter for Functional Food Science Textbook. You could actually find this “Call for contribution” at

    I was not able to find to much useful information about the editor “Danik M. Martirosyan, PhD” and when I browsed their website (, there seems to be something wrong, but I just can not put my finger on it.

    Would you please have a look at it and let me know your opinion of it?

    Thank you very much.

  21. David says:

    Hello Jeff,is the International journal for humanity and social science(IJHSS) a reputable journal for scientific publications.

    Thank you

    • Whenever possible, I list by publisher rather than by individual journal. In this case, the publisher is Centre for Promoting Ideas (CPI), USA, and that publisher is indeed on the list. Thanks.

  22. F. Bistouni says:

    Mr. Jeffrey International journal of research in computer science ( is removed from your list. What is the reason?

  23. Fathollah Bistouni says:

    Mr. Jeffrey on the link below there is a long list of non-accredited journals from the perspective of a university in my country. Please check them out and add to your list.

  24. ashley says:

    Hi All,

    I was wondering if anyone has any thoughts on the collection of journals “acedemic Journals”:

    i am a graduate student and fear that i may have made a mistake submitting an article to one of the biology journals run by this organization. has anyone heard bad things about this organization?

  25. […] Diario Médico se hace eco del Blog Scholarly Open Access de Jeffrey Beall que alerta del crecimiento de editoriales que cobran a los autores importantes […]

  26. Jack says:

    Dear Sweet Beall!

    What you will comment about a journal if it is listed in IET’S INSPEC. I came to know that INSPEC is a most respectable directory and covered by Thomson Reuters. I contacted TR and they told me that their selection criteria is very strict and once a journal is registered by INSPEC it would soon indexed in TR without the special scrutiny as for non-INSPEC journals. What is your comment about the journal listed in INSPEC, is their any chance of predatory journal in INSPEC?

  27. Jack says:

    Oh ohhhhh, I deleted that email few days ago, Alash! however i have that link stored in my browser given by TR in that email, please look at this:

    Hope you can make an assessment based on your experience.

  28. Ionel Frakele says:

    I have applied for editorial board membership in a US based journal, after evaluation which took almost one month, they replied me with this text:

    Dear candidate,

    Upon successful review of your CV editor has decided to accept your application on the condition that you have to resign from all predatory journals in which you are currently listed. Please find the list of journals here:

    This action is essential in order to join this journal as per our policy to protect our and your reputation. Reply within one day if you agree with the condition…………………………….


    Dear Blog operator…. I am a senior level professor having double doctorate. I surely felt my insult just because of your this blog. Journals are refusing a person having 2 doctoral degrees and 25 years of experience. Why you are doing this????

    • Before I can give a good answer, I need to know the following: What is your real name? The name you give here, Lonel Frakele gets zero hits in Google. For which journals do you already serve on the editorial board? What is the journal whose editorial board you are applying to get on? Thanks.

  29. Natalia says:

    Check the following things of an online or print journal before submitting your papers:

    1) The journal face/ out look must be mature, not childish.
    2) Observe the editorial board, look is it mentioned in a formal way or irregular odd way. Search and contact few of editorial board members and ask about the journal.
    3) Look that journal’s policies regarding major issues and conflicts are mentioned.
    4) Journal’s scope should not be so broad, e.g. it could cover two linked discipline but should not cover odd ones.
    5) Send your manuscript to journal and observe their review process, if they accept as it is, than journal is problematic.
    6) Please note that good journals do not chase indexing/ abstracting agencies but these agencies chase the journal to become part of their network.
    7) Open access is a good model, most of the people in 2nd and 3rd world countries do not afford huge library subscriptions. Open access model give them chance to contribute in literature and research. Look at the model of journal, is it closer to greed or passion.
    8) Look at the address of print journals, is it ok? However, online journals are global in nature.
    9) Check that the journal is indexed/ listed in DOAJ, SCOPUS, ABI/ INFORM OR Reuters, most of the wrong journals are strained out in their selection criteria.
    10) The journal is charging reasonable i.e. not as low as 50$ or not as high as 600$.

    • Allen A. Smith, Ph.D. says:

      Exactly what makes a publisher predatory? InTech (“predatory”) charges $900 to publish an an open-access article. Wiley (“legitimate publisher”) charges $2500 to publish an open-access article. Who is the predator?

      • Jan Nyssen says:

        hello Allen, the difference is that with Wiley you can also publish without paying, and that there is a strong peer review

  30. Hazlynn says:

    Hi there,

    i’m a student and recently I received an email from this so called International Journal of Education and Research (IJER), published by CRC Australia, calling for papers.
    I sent a manuscript to be reviewed, and within a week received a feedback from the Chief Editor (Dr Gary Genosko) that my paper is accepted without any amendments. And the next step would be to pay a publication fee of UDS100 to this guy in India??
    I tried to do a research on Dr Gary Genosko (Professor of Education, Victoria Univ) but did not find anything.
    Should I be suspicious and forget about the whole thing?

  31. Keis Ohtsuka, PhD says:

    I am an academic who works in Victoria University, Melbourne. I alerted Jeff regarding this journal and CRC Australia as a bogus predatory publisher. Dr Gary Genosko does not work at Victoria University, Melbourne.

  32. Olawale Ibrahim says:

    Thanks for your piece on predatory publishers. The list sure shows a lot and indicates the desperation of publishers. Of course am aware that the fact that the better journals cannot accommodate everyone makes some of these journals thrive but what is the solution?
    My second and perhaps most important comment /question is this; I have two articles in two of the journals listed and am not happy about that, can I then resend the articles to other journals for proper review since these other guys are predatory? I need an answer because my assessment depends on those papers.

    • There’s no easy answer. The journals may not let you withdraw your articles. Most journals ask that new submissions be completely original, and not previously published. Chalk it up as a lesson; write some new and better articles, and submit them to higher quality journals.

  33. sadeli ilyas says:

    Is The Eperiment Journal a reputable journal for scientific publications.

  34. Shahzad Munir says:

    Dear Beall, Kindly update me about the African Journal of Microbiology Research. Is it Impact factor come to zero or the Journal will not be considered further by Thomson Reuters??? What do you mean by dropped by TR???

    • I do not see that journal on the list of journals with an impact factor. This does not mean that the impact factor is zero; it means that it does not have any impact factor.

      • Lawrence says:

        Hi Jeff, libertas Academica was listed in your list in 2010. What made you remove that publisher from your list now?

      • They improved, changed some of their practices. The owner asked me to have another look and I did and found it no longer met the criteria.

  35. Lawrence says:

    Thanks Jeff. I always felt that LA was a nice journal. I didn’t fina any problem in their review and infact they where strict in my reviews. Some one has to remove the statement in wikipedia about LA being a predatory journal

  36. SESSOU Philippe says:

    Dear Jeffrey. What do you reproach to the science alert journals as Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences and Research Journal of Microbiology? The first one is indewed in the following

    Thomson ISI
    ISI Web of Knowledge
    Cambridge Scientific Abstract
    Chemical Abstract Services

    and many more

    the second one is indexed in

    Philippe SESSOU

  37. Ashenafi says:

    Dear Jeffrey Beall,

    There is a conference organized by a group called ScienceOne. I am a little curious about the Journal they cited and wanted to ask you if it is predatory or not. here is the link


    • I generally don’t make judgments about conferences and limit my work to OA journals and their publishers. This company does look suspicious, however. I noted that their “contact us” page does not list a physical location — so they definitely want to hide information from the public. I say stick with the high-quality, established conferences.

  38. Salma says:

    Dear Dr. Jeffrey,
    Its great to have you here to help us out!
    I request you to kindly look into the Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics. Though its not indexed in Scopus but in ABI iNFORMS. Also the journal is published in Australia and included in emeraldinsight database. How credible is it?Thanks

    • David says:

      Dear Dr. Jeffrey,

      Once again, could you confirm whether Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences is legitimate?

      It is indexed in Thompson and Scopus, published by They are based in Punjab,Pakistan.

      The trouble is, there is another journal that has the exact name,same ISBN number but published by AENSI, the web address is, contact person is in Jordan, fee is USD180. Contact is only with a e-mail.

      The latter sounds terribly fishy!

      • I am not able to access anything at the first link you provide. Can you check it? Thank you.

      • David says:

        That is the only link I have I’m afraid.

        By the way, you have also highlighted this journal(and it’s publisher – AENSI) as a suspect journal and dodgy publisher, in your August 2013 list.

        Can it be there is a legitimate Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences and a fake one?

        Thank you for your time.

  39. T. Jack says:

    Dear Jeff,
    I feel the joy in open access publishing is the advantage of double peer review, (1.) pre-publication-leading to final acceptance for publication and most importantly (2.) post-publication- where the article is now intensely subjected to a vast and more global audience of continuous critic. You can also say that this applies to non-open access models. But this is on a very selected and limited reader-audience basis; Thus, in the arguments that articles in some open access journals are not properly peer reviewed before publication, the post publication evaluation by the vast global audience of readers and researchers fills in the gap. My experience in receiving an email from a student researcher in a University from a very distant clime from mine requesting a confirmation of a reference listed in one of my articles confirms this. The article had spurred his University Supervisor to propose a project work in the subject area. If the article had appeared in one of the subscription based journals, available to only a few readers, this may not have been possible. For those who embrace the new technology of open access academic publishing, the post publication continuous critic and evaluation of one’s published article is the risk one has to prepare for in the long run, since new thinking can emanate from anywhere that can annul held views. This I believe is good for the global research community. On your predatory publisher list, what I would add is that since a standard for open access publishing, acceptable by all, is yet to be fully established, with different business models still being tested, we all in the research community must not be too rigid. This new technology is of great benefit to all researchers with modest or great talents.

    • You like open access but don’t want to use your full name? You describe the ideals and benefits of OA, and I am sure everyone agreeswith you on that, but some are corrupting the model by using deceit and lack of transparency. Theory and practice are the same in theory but different in practice. I don’t really see open access as a new technology but as a distribution model. Why did the student need to confirm a reference? Was it done incorrectly in your paper?

  40. Hello from Istanbul, Turkey. I am trying to be a devout follower to open access spirit, and I see that there are hundreds of sinister people, spoiling the cause and giving people a terrible first impression. These journals should, I believe, be discouraged heavily by scholars. I have translated your opinions about the 2013 list with two lists into Turkish and will try to inform the people in the scientific arena in Turkey. I will also send a private e-mail about some personal thoughts and requests right away. Thank you for telling people the right way.

  41. Hi Jeff, I am wondering about a publisher supposedly based out of Switzerland MDPI AG ((Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute). I can’t find it on your list but its own published history on its webpage seems sketchy. Anyone alert you to this publisher? Thanks.

  42. Clifford W. Beninger says:

    Hi Jeffry. I am wondering about a publisher MDPI AG (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute) supposedly based out of Switzerland. Its own history on the homepage seems sketchy to me. Anyone know anything more about this publisher?

  43. Hi Jeffery,

    This might not be right place for me to post. Thank you very much for this idea of trying to improve the standard of open access Journal, we have seen some of your reason of listing most of this journal as predatory journals, i am writing on behalf of Sky Journals, that is a new Journals, please can you tell us the major problem of this journal so that we can work on it and try to improve on

    • The major problem is that the owners don’t know what the major problems are. I recommend that you hire a scholarly publishing consultant to help improve your operation. When people with no experience in scholarly publishing try to start a scholarly publishing operation, it frequently ends in disaster.

  44. Clifford W. Beninger says:

    Hi Jeffrey,

    Got the email below a few days ago. Very dubious. I don’t see “Frontiers” publishing on your list – or maybe this is just a name under a more general OA publisher. Thanks.

    Dear Colleague,

    I am glad to announce the launch of our new open-access journal Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, which from the end of October 2013 onwards will be open for submissions on all topics from “evo-devo” to systems ecology, including behavioral ecology.

    Frontiers is a Swiss open-access academic publisher, launched in 2007 as a grassroots initiative by scientists from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL). In 2013, we partnered with the Nature Publishing Group to further open-access and open-science tools.

    You can participate in the launch of Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution in various ways.

    · You can apply here to become Specialty Chief Editor, Associate Editor, or Review Editor of a section within Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution or suggest a colleague for these positions.

    · You can suggest a section for inclusion in the journal, for example Conservation or Theoretical Ecology.

    · You can also build a personal profile to expand your research network and post comments, news, and post-publication feedback.

    We welcome your input because Frontiers’ mission is to let scientists rather than publishers determine how science should be disseminated. We will recruit an editorial board for every section within Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution for which there is interest. Online applications and suggestions will be automatically forwarded to the editorial office, but you are welcome to contact us if you have questions.

    At Frontiers, we are proud of our outstanding editorial boards, transparent and interactive peer review, and state-of-the-art web platform for organizing, integrating, and democratically distilling scientific content through article-level metrics and our unique tiering system.

    We look forward to launching Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution with you.

    All the best,
    Henry Markram

    Editor-in-Chief, Frontiers
    Professor, Brain Mind Institute, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
    Founder and Director, Blue Brain Project
    Other links: TED Talk; The Human Brain Project

  45. Clifford W. Beninger says:

    Hi Jeffrey,

    This is really unbelievable: Try the search option, they’re all Free corrigendums, addendums etc. Or maybe I’m missing something?

  46. T. Dasgupta says:

    Dear Mr. Jeffrey Beall,

    I would request you to kindly consider ‘International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology’ ( and check whether it is a predatory open access journal or not.

    Thanks in advance.

    • This journal’s publisher is on my list. The publisher is ESRSA Publication, also called The Engineering and Science Research Support Academy. I recommend against submitting papers to this journal and against serving on its editorial boards.

      • T. Dasgupta says:

        Thank you very much for your advice. I must say you are doing an wonderful job by making people aware of these ‘fake’ journals.

  47. spc says:

    Congratulations for this interesting blog.

    Do you have any info about “Enliven Archive” ( ?

    Sorry if this particular post is not the right place for this kind of questions, but I could not find a better place in the blog.

  48. Wkai Spooler says:

    Hi Jeffrey Beall,

    you are conducting a very useful service for scientific world.
    But there are a lot of criticism about you rather than your web page. You should consider to request help from a non-profit organization in order to maintain your list without any suspicion.
    Otherwise you can not stop the people, that think you are a gunman of BMJ or another publisher which earn millions from open access publishing.
    Also please give us some opportunity in order to help you (new websites, email groups etc).

    thank you for this good job.

  49. Ahmad says:

    Hi Jeff,
    Can you comment about European Scientific Journal? If only one criteria is applied, then, as far as the “scope” test is concerned, I think this Journal may find a place in your list. What do you say about it? Thanks any way for your effort to keep things pure. Best regards. Ahmad

  50. Hi Jeffrey,
    I noted that Clute Institute is on your list of questionable publishers. I have published with them a couple of times (and paid a fee) and currently have two new articles accepted, each charging a fee. They were submitted before I saw your website and list. Much about the publisher seems fine according to your list of criteria. I am not sure why it is on your list… Should I send an email to them asking what they think about this?

    Clute’s fees seem high (i.e. $450 for 6-10 pages). And they have recently instituted a review charge, for usual and for expedited. Are paying fees always a problem?

    The review process might be suspect: For one journal, I received actual feedback, but it was primarily about sentence completion and structure, not about content. For the other, it was accepted as is.

    I have searched your website for any mention by anyone of experiences or opinions about Clute, but have not found anything. Can you advise?

    • Hi, Elizabeth, You are welcome to send them an email. I have had many (cordial) exchanges with Dr. Clute. Fees in themselves are not a criterion for determining whether a publisher is predatory, but the submission fees (and the expedited fee) are questionable. Those fees aren’t actually that high in comparison. I agree with the rest of your analysis. Jeffrey

  51. SANTHOSH says:

    Hi there,

    i’m a resreach scholor and recently I received an email from this so called Australian Journal of basic and apllied scienes.
    I sent a manuscript to be reviewed, and within a week received a feedback from the Chief Editor that my paper is accepted without any amendments. And the next step would be to pay a publication fee of 200USA ??
    Should I be suspicious and forget about the whole thing?

  52. sadia says:

    Dear Jeffrey,
    Can u tell about the “Australian journal pf basic and applied sciences”? As it is fake, then how could it be included in thomson reuter’s and scopous list? I am confused? one of my article accepted there and they charged me processing fees? what should I do? plz help
    thanks in adavnce

    • Yes, this journal is published by the American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information (AENSI). This publisher is on my list. I have different criteria than Thomson Reuters and Scopus. Because this publisher is on my list, I recommend that scholars not submit papers to any of its journals. I recommend that you withdraw your article (if it hasn’t been published already) and submit it to a better journal.

    • Ola Ramadhan says:

      my paper was just accepted and published there, but I didn’t have to pay anything.

  53. Prasanna says:


    I need your expert opinion on the “Journal of of Scientific Research and Reports”.

    Besides its editor “George Perry”, are there any points against this publisher which I can use to make a scientist pull out his article from this journal right away?

    Many thanks in advance!!!

  54. Hemant says:

    I have been frequeltly receiving CFPs from ADRRI journal, Its quality is poor and idexing it claimed is also seems to be meaningless.
    What is your opinion? It should be in your list?

  55. sadia says:

    Dear Jeffrey,

    Can you tell me about the Scientific World Journal (ISSN:1537-744X). Is it listed in Thomson Reuter’s (Science Citation Index Expanded, 2013) list. I have one paper published there. My university only accept Thomson Reuter’s (Science Citation Index Expanded).

    please help me by providing this information.


    • Yes, this journal has a valid impact factor and is in SCI. It is NOT a predatory journal. I think this journal should meet your university’s requirements. Good luck.

  56. KM says:

    Dear Mr. Beall,

    could you give me a hint about ATINER?

    Thank you in advance.

    • Good question. I analyzed this publisher when it first appeared within the past year. I did not add it to my list. Now looking at it again, I immediately found it involved in an apparent case of duplicate publication:,0,842

      I will be re-examining this publisher over the next week. Thanks for the alert.

      • KM says:

        Thank you Mr. Beall,

        Actually, their website is really poorly developed, but it seems they attract some really well-established scholars as members, mostly of Greek origin living in USA.

        An interesting fact is that the registration fee for their conferences and publication fee for journals is quite high (min. 300 euros).

        Looking forward to reading your evaluation.

      • AlexH says:

        Probably not a full duplication; the article in Telecommunications Policy is 12 pages long, while the article in AJSS is 30 pages. Still should have referenced the previous article in a footnote.

        Plus i do not really understand why Mr. Chou incorporated his previous results in the AJSS article; he should have summarized it in 1-2 paragraphs, cite the previous work and write a completely original one -with approx 18pages of new content this is not hard at all.

      • AlexH says:

        aaand…its gone! next please…

  57. Zaki Shakir Seddigi says:

    Dear Jeffrey Beall,

    I would request you to kindly consider IOSR JOURNALS and check whether it is a predatory Publisher or not. They mention high Impact factor of their journals.

    I also request to make list of fake Impact Factor Journals list so authors will not submit paper and save their hard earned money.


  58. […] is one of dozens “Frontiers in” journals by the swiss company Frontiers Media SA. What looks at first glance like one of those predatory publishers – a bunch of similar journals started […]

  59. Ola Ramadhan says:

    Dear Mr. Beall

    Can you tell me about Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences published by AENSI? Thank you very much

  60. Deepa says:

    Dear Mr.Beall,
    Could you please help me with this Journal
    Is this fake?
    How do I find a genuine journal other than Springer,IEEE ?
    I’ve gone through your comments above and only found Sage Open and Libertas Academica in the good journal list.
    Please help

    • I recommend against submitting papers to this journal, the International Journal of Computer Applications. There are several ways to find good journals. One is reading widely in your field, gaining familiarity with the best journals. You can also consult with senior colleagues. I also recommend that you consult with your university librarians. This source may also help.

  61. KM says:

    Dear Mr. Beall,

    There is a relatively new publisher named International Academic Forum (IAFOR) which does not appear on your list. Could you please comment?

    Thank you very much.

    • I’ve analyzed it and find it somewhat messy, but I don’t think it meets the criteria for inclusion on the list.

      If you think it should be on the list, I’d be interested to hear what you think.

      • KM says:

        It was difficult for me to find the authors guidelines and the publication fee and the journals scope is a bit broad (e.g. politics, economics and law), apart from that I do not have any particular argument for its inclusion on the list.
        The reason I am a bit concerned is that I regularly receive e-mails from publishers (most of them are on your list) to submit or review papers. Since the OA publishing industry keeps growing, it is important to distinguish which of them trully deserve attention.

      • CM says:

        Perhaps not predatory per se, but equally not the fully rigorous, high-quality academic journals of interest to people who want to be taken seriously in their academic fields?

        One of the reasons IAFOR rings bells is because it continually emails me about conferences from newly generated, complicated email addresses (presumably using a spam emailer), so that I cannot block the darn RFPs. Also, they keep sending me “invites” to conferences that are not in my area, claiming I expressed interest (um, no). The Education journal is specifically a “conference proceedings” publication. I presume the other subject journals are likewise conference proceedings.

        Additionally, IAFOR Education lists a grad student as its one Reviewer:

        They have scads of conferences listed for 2015 in things as far apart as Business, Psychology, Ethics, Media, Librarianship, and Education:

        A quick look suggests they publish material that does partial field overviews (in part because of the “literature review” element that is a paper requirement of the journal), and often quite dated ones. The papers in the 2012 collection, for instance, have very dated Reference lists, just as a starting observation:

        Though attending a conference might be interesting, were it me attempting to work my way into the field, or indeed, wanting to publish with a peer-reviewed source that would be of benefit to my career, I’d go with something more established and more reputable.

        I also have trouble reconciling the existence of an “independent thinktank” which does “private consulting projects” with adequately academic and independent peer review. More about IAFOR’s mission and its intent to mediate between academia, business, and “practitioners” here:

        At the moment, presenting or publication with IAFOR is highly unlikely to be seen within the identified disciplines as lending adequately academic credit to a CV.

        (Also, Jeffrey, I think every grad student and new academic, and many “older” academics, ought to have your URL tattooed on one hand or the other. Sheer public service and brilliance at its best!)

        ps — You previously (April 13, 2013) indicated IAFOR were not authentic conference organizers; has the situation changed?

  62. Gustavo Souza says:

    Dear Mr. Beall,
    I would like a clarification about the European Scientific Journal (ESJ) from the European Scientific Institute (

    Look, I realize that some people have spoken presently that the ESJ is a predatory journal.

    However, there are two years I have been Reviewer of papers for the ESJ and I know a professor colleague who also is reviewer of this Journal.
    Also, I had one paper accepted at ESJ and I did not know about the publication fee. I communicated to the editor that I could not pay the publication fee, and the Editor published the article even thus.

    So I would like to know your opinion about this Journal.

    Kind regards,
    Gustavo Souza
    Federal University of Alagoas, Brazil

  63. A. Babaki says:

    Dear Jeffrey Beall,

    What is your opinion about the journals contained in this web site:

    Are they sufficiently reliable for publication?

    Thank you

    • It appears that this publisher may be transitioning from subscription access to open-access.
      I found one journal that is still a subscription journal but also charges authors.
      I found the website difficult to navigate and poorly organized.
      This is a low quality publisher, any way you look at it. I would advise authors to find a better publisher, and this should not be too difficult. I need more time to determine whether this publisher belongs on my list or not.
      This publisher’s copyright transfer form (yes you have to pay they AND sign over your copyright) is among the strangest I have ever seen.
      SUMMARY: Don’t publish here. Find a better publisher.

  64. A. Babaki says:

    Dear Jeffrey Beall,

    I thank you for dedicating your time to answer the questions as well as a detailed analysis of the the journals.

    As another question, what is your opinion about working as an Editor-in-Chief at one of these journals contained in the mentioned web site?

    Thank you

    • I recommend that researchers not accept positions as editors-in-chief or as editorial board members of the journals published by all the publishers on my lists. It could hurt your career in the long term.

  65. Negar says:

    Dear Jeffrey Beall,

    I have check website of “International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology” ( . They has claimed that they’ve been indexed by Thomson Reuters and owning ISSN: 2277-1581, but i can’t find their Journal in Thomson Reuters’s website.
    Do you have any information if their informations are correct or not?

    Thank you for yout time in advance,

  66. Mrs Nasheed Jafri says:

    Dear Mr Beall,
    Thank you for replying, and for the advice.

  67. Ayesha Farooq says:

    Hi Mr. Beall,

    My paper has recently been published in Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. But this journal seems to be in transparent about the location and they also claim to have their content indexed by ISI/Thomson and SCOPUS. The paper is now available online but I don’t know if it really is what they claim? As there is no such information available. I wanted to ask for your opinion.
    Thanks much.

    • The Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences is published in Pakistan. I have this journal included on my list and recommend that researchers avoid it and instead select better journals for their work.

  68. muskan says:

    dear beall kindly check the validity of this journal as one of my paper has been accepted by them.waiting for your reply

  69. Humera says:

    What about ” American Journal of Applied Sciences” and D-Lib Magazine ??

    • The American Journal of Applied Sciences is published by the predatory publisher called Science Publications. I strongly recommend ou avoid sending your work to all the journals it publishes. D-Lib Magazine is not a predatory journal.

      • humeratariq says:

        Thanks for your prompt response. It means it is safe to send our work to D-Lib Magazine. Is publishing in D-Lib is equivalent to journal publishing?

      • D-LIB is not predatory, but it is not a strong, scholarly journal. Its popularity and prestige have waned in recent years. The journal has a strong political bias, in my opinion. It tends to accept only articles that support a particular political ideology. If you are a European Green Party member or a pal of George Soros, the journal will be happy to publish whatever you have to say.

  70. Debabrata says:

    I am not aware of all OA publishers, but I did
    have the opportunity to publish with SCIRP. Though I cannot vouch for all their publications because quite a few were pretty mindless, I myself found the peer review of my piece quite good. As Beall seem to be almost religiously offended by OA (quite similar to a catholic pastor to anything scientific), I did a little research on SCIRP on the internet. And I found the most exhaustive FAQ I have ever seen from any academic publisher. So I guess Beall’s own research is actually not upto the mark. And if you really want to have a constructive arguement, have the courage to post this.

  71. Mehmet Orgun says:

    Dear Jeffrey, Just received an invitation to submit a paper to a new open access journal (, with no contents yet. It’s processing fee borders on the ridiculous (USD$15). Also it seems to be an (almost) copy-cat of another standalone journal on your list ( I think this journal deserves to be investigated.

  72. Shan says:

    What are the best way to know about the quality of a journals(regional/national/international)? which tools can be used? if they arent index in some of the renowed indexing database does it means that they are of no good quality?can they be called as peer reviewd if they have international collaborators in their editorial board? what is required for a journal to be known as international journal?

  73. Emea Uma says:

    Dear Jeff,
    Thanks for all you have been doing. Here is another strange practice to add to the criteria list for determining predatory open-access publishers:

    Swapping Between “Theme” of one author and using “body of manuscript” of another author.

    This is the problem that I face with International Journal of Recent Scientific Research (IJRSR –, a publisher you categorized as “standalone.”

    I have made several effort to correct this “simple error” without success. The publisher maintains my manuscript has been published. The Theme of my paid manuscript is: “Malaria-Endemic Nations: Overlooked Primary Elimination Strategy,” but published under Lytvynova, S.G., as the author, using his/her manuscript (Issue: 11, Volume: 6).
    The Theme (That is, my Theme without the body of my manuscript) deals with technology research. The Theme and body of my article deal with health/medicine.
    Please use your good office as always to investigate this publisher.
    Thanks again.

    Emea Uma

    • Thanks, I will have a look at this.
      The journal is indeed included on my list of standalone journals. These are single journals that do not have a publisher. If you could send me a link to your article, that would be helpful. Take care.

  74. Peter68 says:

    Dear Sir,
    I am a Polish scientist who has just received the reviews concerning a manuscript submitted to the electronic journal “Sage Open”. The article has been reviewed by two scholars. I have been advised to make major revisions but I wonder whether it deserves my efforts to improve the text. In addition the publication fee, when accepted is not low for a Polish citizen. What do you think about this journal? Is it worth publishing while it is not included on JCRs list and has no IF factor? Has it any scientific value, when it just provides electronic ISSN?
    What about open access non-predatory journals? Have you drawn up a list of them? I would highly appreciate your response since you are supposed to be an expert at this issue. Browsing various www pages, I have read your opinion on “Polish Index Copernicus” list, but my question does not concern this topic.

    • First, the journal SAGE Open is not on my list; it is not a predatory journal.
      However, it is one of dozens or hundreds of mega-journals. These journals accept most papers accepted as long as they are methodologically correct. Many papers published in mega-journals are papers rejected from stronger journals. If someone publishes in a mega-journal, he or she is not making any statements to the world about the quality or novelty of his or her research. He or she is only saying that the article met the minimum qualifications to be accepted and published (after paying the high fee).
      Some of the articles in SAGE Open may have some scientific value.
      I do not compile any list of non-predatory journals, sorry.

  75. Sohaib says:

    Can we assume that, all research/academic conferences organized by journals/publishers in your list should be avoided as well or you recommend that your list shall be followed for journal publications only?

    • Basically yes. My lists are set up to help provide information to scholarly authors, information that will help them avoid questionable publishers and journals. Although the lists are not set up to give advice on conferences, many have, I believe, used them this way. If a publisher is corrupt or low-quality, it is likely that the scholarly conferences it offers are of the same low-quality.

  76. fajar nurjaman says:

    Dear Beall,
    I need your explanation about The ARPN Journal of Engineering and Sciences. I know that the ARPN publisher is on your list, but I also know that The ARPN Journal of Engineering and Sciences is on Scimago list (SJR Impact Factor 0.213 – Q3 journal). Thank you

  77. sicitm says:

    The SJR is also high Q3

  78. Jan Nyssen says:

    hello Jeffrey,

    many people send inquiries about specific journals, to know whether they are predatory or not. Of course this information is generally in your lists. However the problem stands from the fact that you bring it essentially as a list of predatory publishers (and in addition a list of standalone journals). Would it be possible to compile it all in one list?
    That would be a huge list, unfortunately!
    The list would need to be updated automatically, because every day the main predatory publishers come up with dozens of new journals.

    Further, I would like to stress that there are three categories of people who get their papers published in predatory journals:
    – bona fide researchers without access to the Web of Science and hence who cannot verify claims of the publishers – for them your blog is most useful
    – a lot of people who like to believe the claims of the journal, because, imagine, you finish your MSc thesis, rework it a little, pay 60 dollar and in the shortest time you have a paper to put on your CV – here your blog is important because it allows institutions to reject fraudulous CVs
    – co-authors who all of a sudden find their names in predatory journals, without ever having been asked about it.

    Congratulations and keep up the good job!


  79. Percy Okae says:

    Hello Prof:
    please what do you say about the publisher: World Scientific.
    Looking forward to your answer.
    Thank you.

  80. Thamara Gunasekare says:

    Dear Dr, Beall,

    What is your recommendation in publishing in TIJOSS. It is having a journal call International journal of Social science. According to my knowledge currently it is not in your list. I am hoping to send my article to this International journal of Social Science. Please advice me.

    • Actually, I have this journal — The International Journal of Social Sciences (TIJOSS) — included on my standalone journal list here. I strongly recommend that you not send any papers to this journal.

  81. Yusuf IA says:

    is KIU Journal of Social Sciences is indexed at and abstracted in African Journals Online (AJOL) predatory?

  82. nazla maharani umaya says:

    Dear Dr. Beall

    I need the help of information associated with the journal predators. six months ago I entered in the journal article that turned IJLL included in the list of predators (I do not know in advance). but I’ve been sent a payment. and in my country many who experience it to lose hundreds of millions. is there a way to follow the intellectual criminal acts, because to this day the website is still operating. or we can just take it for granted as a dupe.
    web journal

    help us please.

    • This is a completely fake publisher called American Research Institute for Policy Development. It specializes in victimizing honest researchers. It pretends to be based in the United States, but it’s really based in Bangladesh. This publisher has hurt many people. They never give refunds, and they don’t reply to emails.

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